Standard on Internal Audit (SIA) 16, Using the Work of an Expert
November, 28th 2018
STANDARD ON INTERNAL AUDIT (SIA) 16
USING THE WORK OF AN EXPERT*
Introduction ............................................................................... 1-3
Independence of the Expert ......................................................... 4
Determining the Need to Use the Work of an Expert ................. 5-6
Skills and Competence of the Expert .......................................... 7
Objectivity of the Expert .......................................................... 8-9
Evaluating the Work of an Expert ......................................... 10-14
Reference to an Expert in the Internal Audit Report ...................15
Effective Date .............................................................................16
The following is the text of the Standard on Internal Audit
(SIA) 16, Using the Work of an Expert , issued by the Council
of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India. These
Standards should be read in conjunction with the Preface to
the Standards on Internal Audit, issued by the Institute.
In terms of the decision of the Council of the Institute of
Chartered Accountants of India taken at its 260 th meeting held
in June 2006, the following Standard on Internal Audit shall be
recommendatory in nature in the initial period. The Standards
shall become mandatory from such date as notified by the
Being Published in the March, 2009 issue of The Chartered Accountant .
Standard on Internal Audit (SIA) 16
1. The purpose of this Standard on Internal Audit is to establish standard
and provide guidance where the internal auditor uses the work
performed by an expert.
2. The internal auditor should obtain technical advice and
assistance from competent experts if the internal audit team does
not possess the necessary knowledge, skills, expertise or
experience needed to perform all or part of the internal audit
3. An expert for the purpose of this Standard is a person, firm or other
association of persons possessing special skill, expertise, knowledge and
experience in a particular field.
Independence of the Expert
4. When the internal auditor uses the work of an expert, he should
satisfy himself about the competence, objectivity and the
independence of such expert and consider the impact of such
assistance or advice on the overall result of the internal audit
engagement, specially in cases where the outside expert is engaged
by the senior management or those charged with governance.
Determining the Need to Use the Work of an Expert
5. In course of the internal audit engagement, the internal auditor may seek
to obtain assistance or advice in the form of reports, opinions, valuations
and statements of an expert.
6. When determining whether to use the work of an expert or not, the
internal auditor should consider:
the materiality of the item being examined.
the nature and complexity of the item including the risk of
Using the Work of an Expert
the other internal audit evidence available with respect to the
Skills and Competence of the Expert
7. When the internal auditor plans to use the expert's work, he should
satisfy himself as to the expert's skills and competence by
the expert's professional qualifications or membership in an
appropriate professional body.
the reputation of the expert in the relevant discipline.
the knowledge and specific experience of the expert in the
industry to which the auditee entity operates.
Objectivity of the Expert
8. The internal auditor should consider the objectivity of the expert. The
risk that an expert's objectivity will be impaired increases when the expert
employed by the auditee, or
related in some other manner to the auditee.
Accordingly, in these circumstances, the internal auditor should
consider performing more extensive procedures than would
otherwise have been planned, or he might consider engaging
9. The internal auditor should satisfy himself that the expert has no
personal, financial or organizational interests that will prevent him
from rendering unbiased and impartial judgments and opinion.
Evaluating the Work of an Expert
10. When the internal auditor intends to use the work of an expert, he
should gain knowledge regarding the terms of the expert's
engagement and such other matters as to:
the objectives and scope of the work.
Standard on Internal Audit (SIA) 16
a general outline as to the specific items in the expert's report.
access to records, personnel and physical properties.
the ownership and custody of engagement documentation and
working papers, if applicable.
the confidentiality of the expert's work, including the
possibility of its communication to third parties.
the expert's relationship with the auditee, if any.
the confidentiality of the auditee's information used by the
11. The internal auditor should seek reasonable assurance that the
expert's work constitutes appropriate evidence in support of the
overall conclusions formed during the internal audit engagement, by
the source data used.
the assumptions and methods used and, if appropriate, their
consistency with the prior period.
the results of the expert's work in the light of the internal
auditor's overall knowledge of the business and of the results
of his audit procedures.
12. The internal auditor should consider whether the expert has used
source data which are appropriate in the circumstances. The
procedures to be applied by the internal auditor include:
making inquiries of the expert to determine how he has satisfied
himself that the source data are sufficient, relevant and reliable.
conducting independent review procedures on the data provided
by the auditee to the expert to obtain reasonable assurance that
the data are appropriate.
13. The appropriateness and reasonableness of assumptions and methods
used and their application are the responsibility of the expert. The
internal auditor does not have the same expertise and, therefore, cannot
Using the Work of an Expert
always challenge the expert's assumptions and methods. The internal
auditor should obtain an understanding of those assumptions and
methods to determine that they are reasonable and consistent
based on the internal auditor's knowledge of the auditee's business
and on the results of his review procedures.
14. In exceptional cases where the work of an expert does not support
the related representations in the overall systems, procedures and
controls of the entity, the internal auditor should attempt to resolve
the inconsistency by discussions with the auditee and the expert.
Applying additional procedures, including engaging another expert, may
also assist the internal auditor in resolving the inconsistency.
Reference to an Expert in the Internal Audit Report
15. The internal auditor should not, normally, refer to the work of an
expert in the internal audit report. Such a reference may, however,
be considered useful, in case of reporting in respect of cases such as
material weaknesses or deficiencies in the internal control system or in
such other cases where the internal auditor feels that such a reference
would benefit the readers of the report. While referring to such work of
the expert, the internal auditor should outline the assumptions,
broad methodology and conclusions of the expert. Where, in doing
so, the internal auditor considers it appropriate to disclose the
identity of the expert, he should obtain prior consent of the expert
for such disclosure if such consent has not already been obtained.
16. This Standard on Internal Audit is applicable to all internal audits
commencing on or after ______. Earlier application of the SIA is