Latest Expert Exchange Queries
sitemapHome | Registration | Job Portal for CA's | Expert Exchange | Currency Converter | Post Matrimonial Ads | Post Property Ads
 
 
News shortcuts: From the Courts | News Headlines | VAT (Value Added Tax) | Service Tax | Sales Tax | Placements & Empanelment | Various Acts & Rules | Latest Circulars | New Forms | Forex | Auditing | Direct Tax | Customs and Excise | ICAI | Corporate Law | Markets | Students | General | Indirect Tax | Mergers and Acquisitions | Continuing Prof. Edu. | Budget Extravaganza | Transfer Pricing
 
 
 
 
Popular Search: Central Excise rule to resale the machines to a new company :: cpt :: VAT RATES :: form 3cd :: articles on VAT and GST in India :: ICAI offer Get Windows 7,Office 2010 in Rs.799 Taxes :: list of goods taxed at 4% :: VAT Audit :: ACCOUNTING STANDARDS :: TAX RATES - GOODS TAXABLE @ 4% :: TDS :: due date for vat payment :: ARTICLES ON INPUT TAX CREDIT IN VAT :: ACCOUNTING STANDARD :: empanelment
 
 
ICAI »
 Examination dates of Certificate Course on Forex and Treasury Management conducted by Committee on Financial Markets and Investors Protection on 21st and 22nd January, 2017
  Syllabus for the Limited Insolvency Examination on 31st December, 2016 to become Insolvency Professional
 Extension of last date for submission of application forms for Information Systems Audit-Assessment Test (ISA-AT), upto 10th December 2016.
 Four Weeks Residential Programme to be held from 28th January, 2017 to 24th February, 2017 at Centre of Excellence, Hyderabad for Women Participants only.
 CPE Events 5th December - 10th December 2016
 Here's how your employer can help you save tax
 Introduction of facility for online submission of requests for issue of duplicate mark sheets/pass certificates.
 ICAI invites suggestions on revised Model GST Law
 Guidance Note on Reports in Company Prospectuses (Revised 2016) issued by the Auditing and Assurance Standards Board
 President's Message - December 2016
 Ind AS Transition Facilitation Group (ITFG) Clarification Bulletin 6

Guidance Note on the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2016 issued by Auditing and Assurance Standards Board
April, 25th 2016
   Guidance Note on the
Companies (Auditor's Report)
       Order, 2016




    The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
              (Set up by an Act of Parliament)
                       New Delhi
© The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without prior permission, in writing, from the publisher.




Edition          :     April, 2016


Committee/
Department       :     Auditing and Assurance Standards Board


Email            :     aasb@icai.in


Website          :     www.icai.org


Price            :


ISBN             :


Published by      :    The Publication Department on behalf of the Institute of Chartered
                       Accountants of India, ICAI Bhawan, Post Box No. 7100, Indraprastha
                       Marg, New Delhi ­ 110 002.

Printed by       :     Sahitya Bhawan Publications, Hospital Road, Agra 282 003.
                       April/2016/
                                                                      Foreword

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has issued the Companies (Auditor's Report)
Order, 2016 (CARO 2016) which is applicable for audits of financial statements for
periods beginning on or after April 1, 2015. The CARO 2016 contains several new
reporting requirements which were not there in the earlier Orders i.e, CARO 2003
and CARO 2015. An urgent need was felt by ICAI for providing appropriate guidance
on CARO 2016 to the members so that the requirements and expectations of the
Order can be fulfilled in letter and spirit by the auditors.

I am happy that the Auditing and Assurance Standards Board has brought out this
Guidance Note on the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2016 for the benefit of
the members. The Guidance Note was initially developed by three expert groups
constituted by the Board for this purpose and thereafter finalised with the contribution
of all the members of the Board and the Council. The Guidance Note has been
written in an easy to understand language and contains detailed guidance on the
various Clauses of CARO 2016 and the various issues and intricacies involved
therein. I am also happy that the Guidance Note is comprehensive and self-
contained reference document for the members.

I wish to compliment CA. Shyam Lal Agarwal, Chairman, Auditing and Assurance
Standard Board, CA. Sanjay Vasudeva, Vice-Chairman and all the members of the
Auditing and Assurance Standards Board for bringing out this highly useful Guidance
Note by putting their hard and day night efforts to provide in time for the benefit of
the members. I am sure that the members and other interested readers would find
the Guidance Note immensely useful.






April 21, 2016                                                CA. M Devaraja Reddy
New Delhi                                                            President, ICAI
                                                                        Preface

The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has issued the Companies (Auditor's Report)
Order, 2016 (CARO 2016) vide Order dated 29th March 2016. The Order would be
applicable for audit of the financial statements for the period beginning on or after
April 1, 2015. As such it is applicable for the audits of financial year 2015-16 also.
The Order contains several changes and new reporting requirements which were not
covered in earlier CARO. These substantial changes made by the CARO 2016
necessitated the revision of the Statement on CARO 2003 earlier issued by ICAI.

I feel immense pleasure in placing in hands of the members this Guidance Note on
the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2016 which has been finalised in light of the
requirements of the CARO 2016. This Guidance Note supersedes the earlier
Statement on CARO 2003 for audit of financial statements for the period beginning
on or after April 1, 2015.

At this juncture, I wish to place on record my gratitude to members of all the three
study groups constituted for the purpose, Jaipur, New Delhi and Kolkata, for their
dedicated efforts, despite the engagement in their professional matters and demands
in their personal lives. My sincere thanks to: i) all the Jaipur Study Group Members,
viz., CA Bhupendra Mantri, CA Ashok Singhal, CA Vijay Kumar Jain, CA Vishnu
Mantri, CA Vijay Jain, CA Vikas Gupta, CA Prahalad Gupta, CA Ajay Atolia, CA Ravi
Raniwala, CA Jugal Agrawal, CA Shailendra Agarwal, CA Anil Jain, CA Rohit
Ruwatia, CA Pramod Kumar Boob, CA P D Baid, CA Dinesh Kumar Jain, CA Sanjay
Kumar Maheswari and CA Keshav Garg, ii) all the Delhi Study Group Members, viz.,
CA. Anil Sharma (Deputy Convenor), CA. R Balasubramanian, CA. Anil Jobanputra,
CA. Ashok Kumar Agarwal, CA. Rajiv Puri, CA. Sharad Chaudhry, CA. Nitin
Chaudhry, CA. Munish Saraogi, CA. V Rethinam, CA. Gurmeet Grewal, CA.
Avineesh Matta, CA. Arun Saxena, CA. Anil Gupta and iii) all the Kolkata Study
Group Members, viz., CA. DebashisMitra (Convenor), CA. Abhijit Bandyopadhyay,
CA. Bhaskar Banerjee, CA. Arijit Chakraborty, CA. Mohit Bhuteria, CA. Santanu
Ghosh, CA. Partha Sarathi De, CA. Nirupam Haldar, CA. Anindra Nath Chatterjee,
CA. Sumi tBinani, CA Animesh Mukerji and CA Nilima Joshi.

I also wish to express my deep gratitude to CA. M Devaraja Reddy, President, ICAI
and CA. Nilesh Vikamsey, Vice President, ICAI for their vision, guidance and support
in this matter and to the activities of the Board.

I also wish to thank all my colleagues at the Central Council for their suggestions,
cooperation and guidance in formulating and finalizing this Guidance Note and also
to various authoritative pronouncements of the Board. My sincere thanks are also
due to the members of the Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, viz., CA.
Sanjay Vasudeva, (Vice Chairman), CA. Nand kishore Chidamber Hegde, CA. Nihar
Niranjan Jambusaria, CA. Dhinal Ashvinbhai Shah, CA. Babu Abraham Kallivayalil,
CA. Madhukar Narayan Hiregange, CA. G. Sekar, CA. K. Sripriya, CA. M P Vijay
Kumar, CA. Ranjeet Kumar Agarwal, CA. Sushil Kumar Goyal, CA. Debashis Mitra,
CA. Manu Agrawal, CA. Kemisha Soni, CA. Sanjiv Kumar Chaudhary, CA. Mangesh
Pandurang Kinare, Shri P.K. Mishra, Dr. P.C. Jain, Ms. Indu Malhotra, CA. Abhijit
Bandyopadhyay, CA. Harinderjit Singh, CA. Murali Krishna, CA Vijay Kumar Jain,
CA. Akhil Bhalla, CA. Sandeep Dinanath Welling and CA. V. Balaji for their kind
suggestions, support and guidance to finalise this Guidance note and all other
activities of the Board.

My special thanks to CA. Sanjay Vasudeva, Vice Chairman of the Board who has put
all his efforts all the time, irrespective of his prior engagements in his profession,
other committees of ICAI and family matters, to finalise this Guidance Note in such a
short time. My hearty thanks to the Secretary AASB and all her team members for
their dedicated working even beyond the normal working hours of the Institute. I am
confident that this Guidance Note on CARO 2016 would be found useful and well
received by the members and other interested readers.




April 21, 2016                                          CA. Shyam Lal Agarwal
New Delhi                                                               Chairman,
                                            Auditing and Assurance Standards Board
Introduction
1.    The Central Government, in exercise of the powers conferred, under sub-
section (11) of section 143 of the Companies Act, 2013* (hereinafter referred to as
"the Act"), issued the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2016, (CARO, 2016/ "the
Order") vide Order No. S.O. 1228(E) dated 29th March, 2016. CARO, 2016 contains
certain matters on which the auditors of companies (except of those categories of
companies which are specifically exempted under the Order) have to make a
statement in their audit report. The text of the CARO, 2016 is given in Appendix I to
this Guidance Note.
2.    This Order is in supersession of the earlier Order issued in 2015, viz., the
Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2015 (CARO 2015). Appendix II to this
Guidance Note contains a clause-by-clause comparison of the reporting
requirements of the Order and the erstwhile CARO 2015.
3.     The purpose of this Guidance Note is to enable the members to comply with
the reporting requirements of the Order. It should, however, be noted that the
clarifications and explanations contained in this Guidance Note are not intended to
be exhaustive and the auditors should exercise their professional judgment and
experience on various matters on which they are required to report under the Order.
General Provisions Regarding Auditor's Report
4.    The requirements of the Order are supplemental to the existing provisions of
section 143 of the Act regarding the auditor's report. In this regard the following
points may be noted
(i)    the provisions of sub-sections (1), (2) & (3) of section 143 are applicable to all
       companies while the Order exempts certain categories of companies from its
       application; and
(ii)   the provisions of sub-section (1) require the auditor to make certain specific
       enquiries during the course of his audit. The auditor is, however, not required to
       report on any of the matters specified in the sub-section unless he has any
       special comments to make on the said matters. In other words, if he is satisfied
       with the results of his enquiries, he has no further duty to report that he is so
       satisfied. The Order, on the other hand, requires a statement on each of the
       matters specified therein, as applicable to the company.
5.     Another question that arises is about the status of the Order vis a vis the
directions given by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India under section
143(5) of the Act. In this regard, it may be noted that the Order is supplemental to
the directions given by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India under section
143(5) in respect of government companies. These directions continue to be in force.
Therefore, in respect of government companies, the matters specified in the Order
will form part of the auditor's report submitted to the members and the replies to the
aforesaid questionnaire issued by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India will
be governed by the requirements of section 143(5) of the Act

*
Readers' attention is invited to the fact that the Companies (Amendment) Bill 2016 is before the Parliament for
approval. This Guidance Note does not take into account the amendments to the Companies Act, 2013 as
proposed in the aforesaid Bill.
                                                          1
6.    The Order is not intended to limit the duties and responsibilities of auditors but
only requires a statement to be included in the audit report in respect of the matters
specified therein.
Applicability of the Order
Companies Covered by the Order
7.   The Order applies to all companies except certain categories of companies
specifically exempted from the application of the Order.
8.    The Order also applies to foreign companies as defined in clause (42) of
section 2 of the Act. According to the aforesaid section, a "foreign company" means:
        "Any company or body corporate incorporated outside India which -
        (a)   has a place of business in India whether by itself or through an agent,
              physically or through electronic mode; and
        (b)   conducts any business activity in India in any other manner."
9.   In the case of a foreign company, wherever under any of the provisions of the
Act, an audit under Chapter X of the Act is required to be carried out, the Order
would be applicable.
10. The Order is also applicable to the audits of branch(es) of a company since
sub-section 8 of section 143 of the Act read with Rule 12 of the Companies (Audit
and Auditors) Rules, 2014 clearly specifies that a branch auditor has the same duties
in respect of audit as the company's auditor. It is, therefore, necessary that the report
submitted by the branch auditor contains a statement on all the matters specified in
the Order, as applicable to the company, except where the company is exempt from
the applicability of the Order, to enable the company's auditor to consider the same
while complying with the provisions of the Order.
Companies Not Covered by the Order
11.      The Order provides that it shall not apply to:
(i)      a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking
         Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);
(ii)     an insurance company as defined under the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of 1938);
(iii)    a company licensed to operate under section 8 of the Act;
(iv)     a One person Company as defined under clause (62) of section 2 of the Act
         and a Small Company as defined under clause (85) of the section 2 of the Act;
         and
(v)      a private limited company, not being a subsidiary or holding company of a
         public company, having a paid-up capital and reserves and surplus not more
         than rupees one crore as on the balance sheet date and which does not have
         total borrowings exceeding rupees one crore from any bank or financial
         institution at any point of time during the financial year and which does not have
         a total revenue as disclosed in Schedule III to the Act, (including revenue from
         discontinuing operations) exceeding rupees ten crores during the financial year

                                                  2
     as per the financial statements.
12. The Order specifically exempts banking companies, insurance companies and
companies which have been licensed to operate under section 8 of the Act. The
Order also exempts One Person Company and a Small Company from its
application. The applicability of the Order would be based on the status of the
company as at the balance sheet date. It may also be noted that in case a company
is covered under the definition of small company, it will remain exempted from the
applicability of the Order even if it falls under any of the criteria specified for private
company.
13. The specific exemption under the Order is given to companies licensed under
section 8 of the Act. However, it would appear that in view of the provisions of
section 465 of the Act, the exemption would also extend companies licensed to
operate under section 25 of the Companies Act 1956.
14. A private limited company, in order to be exempt from the applicability of the
Order, must satisfy all the conditions mentioned above collectively. In other words,
even if one of the conditions is not satisfied, a private limited company's auditor has
to report on the matters specified in the Order.
Private Limited Company
15. The term "private limited company", as used in the Order, should be construed
to mean a company registered as a "private company" {as defined in sub-section
(68) of section 2 of the Act}.
Paid-up Capital and Reserves and Surplus
16. Sub-section (64) of section 2 of the Act defines the term "paid-up capital" as
such aggregate amount of money credited as paid-up as is equivalent to the amount
received as paid up in respect of shares issued and also includes any amount
credited as paid up in respect of shares of the company, but does not include any
other amount received in respect of such shares, by whatever name called.
The Guidance Note on Terms Used in Financial Statements, issued by the Institute
of Chartered Accountants of India, defines the term "paid-up share capital" as, "that
part of the subscribed share capital for which consideration in cash or otherwise has
been received. This includes bonus shares allotted by the corporate enterprise".
Paid-up share capital would include both equity share capital as well as the
preference share capital. While calculating the paid-up capital, amount of calls
unpaid should be deducted from and the amount originally paid-up on forfeited
shares should be added to the figure of paid-up capital. Share application money
received should not be considered as part of the paid-up capital.
17. The Guidance Note on Terms Used in Financial Statements defines the term
"reserve" as, "The portion of earnings, receipts or other surplus of an enterprise
(whether capital or revenue) appropriated by management for a general or specific
purpose other than provision for depreciation or diminution in the value of assets or
for a known liability.
As per schedule III of Companies Act 2013 "Reserves & Surplus" consists of:-
·    Capital Reserves;

                                                3
·    Capital Redemption Reserve;
·    Securities Premium Reserve;
·    Debenture Redemption Reserve;
·    Revaluation Reserve;
·     Share Options Outstanding Account;
·    Other Reserves­(specify the nature and purpose of each reserve and the
     amount in respect thereof);
·    Surplus i.e., balance in Statement of Profit and Loss
(Debit balance of Statement of Profit and Loss shall be shown as a negative figure
under the head "Surplus".)
18. Reserves are primarily of two types­capital reserves and revenue reserves.
According to the Guidance Note on Terms Used in Financial Statements, the term
"capital reserve" means "a reserve of a corporate enterprise which is not available for
distribution as dividend". The said Guidance Note defines the term "revenue reserve"
as "any reserve other than capital reserve". For determining the applicability of the
Order to a private limited company, both capital as well as revenue reserves should
be taken into consideration while computing the limit of rupees one crore; prescribed
for paid-up capital and reserves & surplus. Revaluation reserve, if any, should also
be taken into consideration while determining the figure of reserves for the limited
purpose of determining the applicability of the Order. In case of debit balance of
profit and loss, the same shall be netted for computing reserves & surplus. To
summarise, total of reserves and surplus as disclosed in the financial statements
should be considered in evaluating the threshold.
Borrowings
19. Borrowings from banks or financial institutions can be long term or short
term and are normally in the form of term loans, demand loans, export credits,
cash credits, overdraft facilities, bills purchased or discounted. Outstanding
balances of such borrowings should be considered as borrowing outstanding for
the purpose of computing the limit of rupees one crore. Non-fund based credit
facilities, to the extent such facilities have devolved and have been converted into
fund-based credit facilities, should also be considered as outstanding borrowings.
The figures of outstanding borrowing would also include the amount of bank
guarantees issued by the company where such guarantee(s) has (have) been
invoked and encashed or where, say, a letter of credit has been devolved on the
company. In case of term loans, interest accrued and due is considered as a
borrowing whereas interest accrued but not due is not considered as a borrowing.
Further, in case the company enjoys a facility, say, a cash credit facility, whose
balance is fluctuating in nature, the Order would apply to the company in case on
any day during the financial year concerned, the amount outstanding in the cash
credit facility exceeds Rs. one crore as per books of the company along with other
borrowings. The condition laid down in the Order is that the private company does
not have total borrowing exceeding rupees one crore from any bank or financial
institution at any point of time during the financial year. There is no stipulation in
the Order that the borrowing should be a long-term borrowing or a short-term
                                              4
borrowing or that it should be a secured borrowing or an unsecured borrowing.
Further, the condition would also apply notwithstanding the fact that the company
has been granted an overdraft facility against, say, fixed deposits, of the company
with the concerned bank. Current maturity of long term borrowings will also form
part of borrowings. Moreover, outstanding dues in respect of credit cards would
also be considered while calculating the limit of Rs. one crore; in respect of
borrowings outstanding from a bank or financial institution. It is clarified that
since the words used by the Order are `any bank or financial institution', the limit
of "exceeding one crore rupees" would apply in aggregate to all borrowings and
not with reference to each bank or financial institution.
Financial Institution
20. Sub section (39) of section 2 of the Act defines the term "financial institution" to
include a scheduled bank, and any other financial institution defined or notified under
the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934)". The term financial institution has
been defined under clause (c) of Section 45I of the RBI Act 1934 as under:-
"45I (c) ``financial institution'' means any non-banking institution which carries
      on as its business or part of its business any of the following activities,
      namely:­
(i)     the financing, whether by way of making loans or advances or otherwise, of any
         activity other than its own;
(ii)    the acquisition of shares, stock, bonds, debentures or securities issued by a
         Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like nature;
(iii)   letting or delivering of any goods to a hirer under a hire-purchase agreement as
         defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Hire-Purchase Act, 1972;
(iv)    the carrying on of any class of insurance business;
(v)     managing, conducting or supervising, as foreman, agent or in any other
        capacity, of chits or kuries as defined in any law which is for the time being in
        force in any State, or any business, which is similar thereto;
(vi)    collecting, for any purpose or under any scheme or arrangement by whatever
        name called, monies in lumpsum or otherwise, by way of subscriptions or by
        sale of units, or other instruments or in any other manner and awarding prizes
        or gifts, whether in cash or kind, or disbursing monies in any other way, to
        persons from whom monies are collected or to any other person, 2 [but does
        not include any institution, which carries on as its principal business;
        (a)   agricultural operations; or
        (aa) industrial activity; or]
        (b)   the purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or the providing
              of any services; or
        (c)   the purchase, construction or sale of immovable property, so however,
              that no portion of the income of the institution is derived from the financing
              of purchases, constructions or sales of immovable property by other
              persons;
                                                  5
Explanation.­ For the purposes of this clause, ``industrial activity'' means any activity
specified in sub-clauses (i) to (xviii) of clause (c) of section 2 of the Industrial
Development Bank of India Act, 1964;
Further ``non-banking institution'' has been defined under clause (e) of Section 45I of
RBI Act 1934 as under:-
45I (e) ``non-banking institution'' means a company, corporation (cooperative
society).
Further, the term "financial institution" is also referred to in the context of the
definition of a non-banking financial company as defined by the RBI Act, 1934. The
term ``non-banking financial company'' has been defined under clause (f) of Section
45I of RBI Act 1934 as under:-
"45I (f) ``non-banking financial company'' means­
(i)     a financial institution which is a company;
(ii)    a non-banking institution which is a company and which has as its principal
        business the receiving of deposits, under any scheme or arrangement or in any
        other manner, or lending in any manner;
(iii)   such other non-banking institution or class of such institutions, as the Bank
        may, with the previous approval of the Central Government and by notification
        in the Official Gazette, specify;"
Accordingly the term "financial institution" shall also cover a non-banking financial
company (NBFC). A list of financial institutions covered under the Companies
(Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014 is given in Appendix III to this Guidance
Note. Further, private banks or foreign banks are banking institutions under the
Banking Regulation Act, 1949. Therefore, loans taken from a private bank or a
foreign bank would also be taken into consideration while examining the applicability
of the Order.
Revenue
21. The term, "revenue", has been defined by the Order as total revenue disclosed
in Schedule III of the Act. Accordingly, the total revenue would include other income
as per Schedule III. Here revenue will also include revenue from discontinuing
operations as specified in the Order.
Auditor's Report to Contain Matters Specified in Paragraphs 3
and 4 of the Order
22. Every report made by the auditor under section 143 of the Act on the accounts
of every company audited by him, to which this Order applies, for the financial year
commencing on or after 1st April 2015 shall, in addition, contain the matters specified
in paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Order as may be applicable. Accordingly the reporting
under this Order shall be applicable for the financial year 2015-16 and onwards. In
case the auditor has to report on the financial statements for the financial year prior
to 2015-16, then the relevant earlier Order shall be applicable.
Here it is pertinent to mention that the Order specify the applicability of the matters
by the words "as may be applicable", reporting on the matters specified in paragraph
                                                 6
3 and 4 of the Order are to be made only on those matters which are applicable to
the Company.
Non-applicability to the Consolidated Financial Statements
The Order specifically provides that it shall not apply to the auditor's report on
consolidated financial statements.
Period of Compliance
A question might arise as to the period in relation to which the auditor should
comment or report upon the matters specified in the Order. For example, several of
the questions relate to the maintenance of proper records. What should be the
position of the auditor when records were improperly maintained for some part of the
financial year but have been properly maintained at the balance sheet date? One
view of the matter would be that no adverse report is necessary since the
deficiencies existing during the year have been rectified before the auditor makes his
report. However, this view does not recognise the fact that maintenance of records is
not an end by itself but is a necessary condition for the auditor to satisfy himself
regarding the authenticity of the transactions on which he is reporting. The better
view, therefore, is to consider that the auditor is reporting on the state of affairs as
they existed during the accounting year and compliance with the requirements of the
Order should be judged with reference to the whole accounting year and not merely
with reference to the position existing at the balance sheet date or the date at which
he makes his report. However, in deciding whether or not to make an unfavourable
comment, the auditor should consider what detrimental effect, if any, has been
caused by the failure to comply with the requirements of the Order for any part of the
year. For example, if records for fixed assets were not properly maintained for some
part of the year but were properly maintained at the balance sheet date and physical
verification was made after the records were properly maintained, there is no
detrimental effect on the company. However, if internal control with respect to the
items specified in the relevant clause of the Order was inadequate during a part of
the year, some detrimental effect on the company could have occurred.
At the same time, the auditor cannot ignore the position existing at the balance sheet
date or at the time at which he makes his report. The auditor might consider, in the
light of the circumstances and provided he is able to satisfy himself regarding the
facts, as to whether a reference to the state of affairs existing at the balance sheet
date or at the date when he makes his report would be necessary to give a more
complete picture to the members to whom he is reporting.
It is not necessary that the auditor should refer individually to each of the
transactions throughout the year where there has not been compliance with the
requirements of the Order unless the non-compliance is so significant as to merit
individual attention. Normally, it should be sufficient if he indicates in general terms
whether or not the requirements have been complied with.
General Approach
23. In formulating a general approach to the requirements of the Order, it is
necessary to take a view regarding the objective behind the issuance of the Order.
The Order does not replace an audit by an investigation in respect of the matters
specified therein. Many of these matters, in any case, are covered by an auditor in
                                              7
the normal course of his audit and the emphasis of the Order is not, therefore, on
requiring the auditor to carry out an investigation but on requiring him to give specific
information on certain aspects of his work.
24. The reporting under the Order, issued under section 143(11) of the Act, is only
supplemental to the audit of financial statements of the company and the auditor's
report issued in terms of section 143(2) and 143(3) of the Act. Reporting under the
Order should not, therefore, be construed as a separate reporting engagement.
Section 143(9) the Act, casts a duty on the auditor to comply with the auditing
standards specified under section 143(10) of the Act. Hence, it should be noted that
the auditor's procedures for reporting on the Order would, as in the case of audit of
financial statements, need to be within the framework of the principles enunciated in
the aforementioned Standards on Auditing.
25. It is possible that for the purposes of the Order, the auditor needs greater
information from the management and, therefore, closer interaction with the
management becomes necessary. This will ensure that there is sufficient advance
planning regarding the manner in which the examination necessary for reporting on
matters specified in the Order would be carried out by the auditor and the form in
which the company should maintain its records so that they provide the necessary
information and evidence to the auditor. An example of this would be the documents
and records to be maintained by the company to provide the requisite evidence to
the auditor regarding verification of fixed assets or inventories. It is, therefore,
suggested that the auditor should intimate to the management, in writing, his
requirements before the commencement of each audit. The auditor should also
consider intimating additional requirements, if any, during the course of the audit.
The auditor should also consider obtaining management representations, on matters
on which the Order requires the auditor make a statement on certain aspects.
26. For a number of reasons, the necessity for preserving working papers by the
auditors assumes greater importance in the context of the requirements of the Order.
Firstly, there should be evidence that the opinion expressed by the auditor is based
on an examination made by him. Secondly, there should be evidence to show that in
arriving at his opinion, the auditor has given due cognisance to the information and
explanations given by the company and that his opinion is not arbitrary. Thirdly, there
should be evidence to show that the information and explanations obtained were full
and complete, that is, the auditor has sought and obtained all the information and
explanations which to the best of his knowledge and belief were necessary to be
considered before arriving at his opinion. Finally, there should be evidence to show
that the auditor did not merely rely upon the information or explanations given by the
company but that he subjected such information and explanations to reasonable
tests to verify their accuracy and completeness.
27. As the auditor needs to comply with the requirements of Standard on Auditing
(SA) 230, "Audit Documentation", the auditor may take the following steps to ensure
that he has adequate working papers to support the conclusions drawn in his report:
(a)   submit to the company, a questionnaire on all important matters covered by the
      Order.
(b)   make specific inquiries in writing on all important matters not covered by the
      questionnaire.

                                               8
(c)   insist that replies of the company are furnished in writing and are signed by a
      responsible officer of the company.
(d)   where the explanations are not already separately recorded, maintain a record
      of the discussions with the management.
(e)   prepare his own "check-list" in respect of the requirements of the Order and
      record the names of the members of his staff who made the examination and
      the name of the company's staff who provided the information. An illustrative
      check-list in respect of the requirements of the Order is given in Appendix IV to
      this Guidance Note.
28. Where a requirement of the Order is not complied with but the auditor decides
not to make an adverse comment, in view of the immateriality of the item, he should
record rationale for the same in his working papers.
29. The mere fact that the Order is confined to certain specific matters should not
be interpreted to imply that the auditor's duties in respect of other matters normally
covered in the course of an audit of the financial statements are, in any way, limited
or abridged by the Order. At the same time, it should be recognised that the
reporting obligations under the Order are confined to the specific items stated in the
Order.
30. Many of the matters covered by the Order require exercise of judgement by the
auditor rather than the application of a purely objective test. For example, the auditor
is required to state whether any material discrepancy noticed on physical verification
of fixed assets have been properly dealt with in the accounts. This requires the
exercise of judgement--firstly, in determining whether the discrepancies are
material, and secondly, in deciding whether the accounting treatment is proper.
31. It may be noted that while reporting on matters specified in the Order, the
auditor should consider the materiality, in accordance with the principles enunciated
in Standard on Audit (SA) 320(Revised), Materiality in Planning and Performing an
Audit. The auditor obtains reasonable assurance by obtaining audit evidences to
reduce audit risk to an acceptable low level. Materiality and audit risk are considered
throughout the audit, in particular, when determining the nature, timing and extent of
further audit procedures to be performed. For example, the auditor, in case of loans
granted by the company, as referred to in Clause 3(iii) of the Order, while reporting,
on the repayment schedule of various loans granted, the auditor examines the loan
documentation of all large loans and conducts a test check examination of the rest,
having regard to the materiality.
32. It is necessary to remember that the exercise of judgement is bound to be a
somewhat subjective matter. This is, in fact, recognised by the provisions of the Act
which require the expression of an opinion by the auditor. When a professional
expresses an opinion, he does not guarantee that his opinion is infallible nor does he
hold out that his opinion will invariably agree with the opinion of another professional
on the same facts. The test of an auditor's liability in a matter which involves the
exercise of judgement is not whether his opinion coincides with that of another
person or authority, but whether he has expressed his opinion in good faith and after
the exercise of reasonable care and skill. No liability can attach to an auditor in a
matter involving the expression of an opinion based on the exercise of judgement,
merely because there is a difference of opinion between him and some other person
                                              9
or authority or merely because some other person or authority comes to the
conclusion that in expressing the opinion the auditor committed an error of
judgement. The auditor may be liable, however, if it is found that he has expressed
his opinion without exercising reasonable care and skill, or without applying his mind
to the facts, or if he has expressed his opinion recklessly, in complete disregard of
the facts.
Matters to be Included in the Auditor's Report
33. The matters to be included in the auditor's report are specified in paragraph 3
of the Order. It has sixteen clauses in all. The Clause-wise Comments are given
below:-
34. Whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full
particulars, including quantitative details and situation of fixed assets.
[Paragraph 3(i)(a)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)    The clause requires the auditor to comment whether the company is
       maintaining proper records showing full particulars, including quantitative
       details and situation of fixed assets.         Accounting Standard (AS) 101,
       "Accounting for Fixed Assets" defines "Fixed Asset" as an "asset held with the
       intention of being used for the purpose of producing or providing goods or
       services and is not held for sale in the normal course of business".*
(b)    The Order does not define as to what constitutes `proper records'. In general,
       however, the records relating to fixed assets should contain, inter alia, the
       following details:
       (i)     sufficient description of the asset to make identification possible;
       (ii)    classification, that is, the head under which it is shown in the accounts,
               e.g., plant and machinery, office equipment, etc;
       (iii)   situation;
       (iv)    quantity, i.e., number of units;
       (v)     original cost;
       (vi)    year of purchase;
       (vii) useful life;
       (viii) residual Value;
       (ix)    component-wise breakup; (Wherever applicable)
1
  As per revised Accounting Standard (AS) 10 (applicable from FY 2016-17),The head " Fixed Assets" replaced
by "Property Plant and Equipment" which defines the term "the tangible items" that:
    a) are held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative
       purposes; and
    b) are expected to be used during more than a period of twelve months".
*
  As per AS 26, Intangible Assets, an Intangible Asset is an identifiable non monetary asset, without physical
substance, held for use in the production or supply of goods or services, for rental to others, or for administrative
purposes.


                                                             10
      (x)    adjustment for revaluation or for any increase or decrease in cost;
      (xi)   date of revaluation, if any;
      (xii) rate(s)/basis of depreciation or amortisation, as the case may be;
      (xiii) depreciation/amortisation for the current year;
      (xiv) accumulated depreciation/amortisation;
      (xv) particulars regarding impairment;
      (xvi) particulars regarding sale, discarding, demolition, destruction, etc.
(c)   The records should contain the above-mentioned particulars in respect of all
      items of fixed assets, whether tangible or intangible, self-financed or acquired
      through finance lease. These records should also contain particulars in respect
      of those items of fixed assets that have been fully depreciated or amortised or
      have been retired from active use and held for disposal. The records should
      also contain necessary particulars in respect of items of fixed assets that have
      been fully impaired during the period covered by the audit report.
      Thus, what constitutes proper records is a matter of professional judgment
      made by the auditor after considering the facts and circumstances of each
      case.
(d)   It is necessary that the aggregate original cost, depreciation or amortisation to
      date, and impairment loss, if any, as per these records under individual heads
      should reconcile with the figures shown in the books of account.
(e)   It is not possible to specify any single form in which the records should be
      maintained. This would depend upon the mode of account keeping (manual or
      computerized), the number of operating locations, the systems of control, etc.
      It may be noted that with the widespread use of the information technology,
      many companies maintain electronic records. In fact, section 2(12) of the Act,
      defines the terms "book and paper" and "book or paper" as including books of
      account, deeds, vouchers, writings, documents, minutes and registers
      maintained on paper or in electronic form". Rule 3 of the Companies
      (Accounts) Rules, 2014 dealing with the "manner of books of account to be
      kept in electronic mode" states as under:
      "(1) The books of account and other relevant books and papers maintained in
           electronic shall remain accessible in India so as to be usable for
           subsequent reference.
      (2)    Books of Account and other relevant books and papers referred to in sub-
             rule (1) shall be retained in the format in which they were originally
             generated, sent or received, or in a format which shall present accurately
             the information generated, sent or received and the information contained
             in the electronic records shall remain complete and unaltered.
      (3)    The information received from branch officers shall not be altered and
             shall be kept in a manner where it shall depict what was originally
             received from the branches.


                                               11
       (4)     The information in the electronic record of the document shall be capable
               of being displayed in a legible form.
       (5)     There shall be a proper system for storage, retrieval, display or printout of
               the electronic records as the Audit Committee, if any, or the Board may
               deem appropriate and such records shall not be disposed of or rendered
               unusable, unless permitted by law."
       The Rule further explains that the term "electronic mode" includes "electronic
       form" as defined in section 2(1)(r) of the Information Technology Act, 2000 and
       also includes an electronic record as defined in section 2(1)(t) of the
       Information Technology Act, 2000 (as amended by the Amendment Act of
       2008)2. Accordingly, where any law requires that any information or matter
       should be in the typewritten or printed form, then such requirement shall be
       deemed to be satisfied if it is in an electronic form. However, it will have to be
       ensured that the information contained in the electronic records remains
       accessible and unaltered and its origin, destination, date, etc., can be identified.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(f)    The auditor may, therefore, accept fixed assets register in electronic form if the
       following two conditions are satisfied:
        (i)     The controls and security measures in the company are such that once
                finalised, the fixed assets register cannot be altered without proper
                authorization and audit trail.3
        (ii)    The fixed assets register is in such a form that it can be retrieved in a
                legible form. In other words, the emphasis is on whether it can be read
                on the screen or a hard copy can be taken. If this is so, one can contend
                that it is capable of being retrieved in a legible form.
       In case the above two conditions or either of the two conditions are not
       satisfied, the auditor should obtain a duly authenticated print-out of the fixed
       assets register. In case the auditor decides to rely on electronically maintained
       fixed assets register, he should maintain adequate documentation evidencing
       the evaluation of controls that seek to ensure the completeness, accuracy and
       security of the register.
(g)    The purpose of showing the situation of the assets is to make verification
       possible. There may, however, be certain classes of fixed assets whose
       situation keeps changing, for example, construction equipment which has to be
       moved to sites. In such circumstances, it should be sufficient if record of
       movement/custody of the equipment is maintained.


2
  Section 2(r) of the Information Technology Act, 2000 defined "electronic form" as follows:
"electronic form" with reference to information means any information generated, sent, received or stored in
media, magnetic, optical, computer memory, micro film, computer generated micro fiche or similar device"
Section 2(t) of the information Technology Act, 2000 defines "electronic records" as follows:
"electronic record" means data, record or data generated, image or sound stored, received or sent in an
electronic form or micro film or computer generated micro fiche."
3
  In this context, attention of the members is also drawn to Standard on Auditing (SA) 315, Identifying and
Assessing the Risks of Material Misstatement Through Understanding the Entity and Its Environment" as also the
"Guidance Note on Audit of Internal Financial Controls Over Financial Reporting", issued by ICAI.
                                                         12
(h)    Where assets like furniture, etc., are located in the residential premises of
       members of the staff, the fixed assets register should indicate the name &
       designation of the person who has custody of the asset for the time being.
(i)    While, generally, the quantity, value and situation have to be recorded item-
       wise, assets of small individual value, e.g., chairs, tables, etc., may be
       conveniently grouped for purposes of entry in the register. Similarly, for assets
       having same useful life, it may not be necessary to indicate the accumulated
       depreciation for each item; instead, depreciation for the group as a whole may
       be shown.
(j)    Quantitative details in respect of fixed assets may be maintained on the
       following lines:
       (i)    Land may be identified by survey numbers and by deeds of conveyance.
       (ii)   Leaseholds can be identified by individual leases.
       (iii) Buildings may, initially, be classified into factory buildings, office
             buildings, township buildings, service buildings (like water works), etc.
             These may then be further sub-divided. Factory buildings may be
             further classified into individual buildings which house a manufacturing
             unit or a plant or sub-plant. Service buildings may be similarly
             classified according to nature of service and location. Township
             buildings can be further classified into individual units or into groups of
             units taking into consideration the type of construction, the location and
             the year of construction. For example, if a company's township has four
             categories of quarters, e.g., A, B, C and D, the fixed assets register
             may not record each individual quarter but may have a single entry for
             all `A' type quarters constructed in a particular year and located in a
             particular area and show only the number of quarters covered by the
             entry.
       (iv)   Railway sidings can be identified by length and location.
       (v)    Plant and Machinery may be sub-divided into fixed and movable. For
              movable machinery, a separate record may be kept for each individual
              item. Movable machinery would include, for this purpose, items of plant
              which are for the moment fixed to the shop-floor but which can be moved,
              e.g., machine tools. In respect of fixed plant and machinery, a sub-division
              can be made according to the process, a plant for each separate process
              being considered as a separate identifiable unit. A further sub-division
              may be useful when within a process, there are plants which are capable
              of working independently of each other. The degree to which a sub-
              division of fixed plant and machinery should be made depends upon the
              circumstances of each case bearing in mind the objectives of sub-division,
              namely, the determination of individual cost and the facility for physical
              verification and componentisation4.
       (vi)   Furniture and fittings and assets like office appliances, air-conditioners,

4
 Attention of the readers is invited to the requirements of Schedule II to the Companies Act 2013 in respect of
componentisation.
                                                          13
             water coolers, etc., consist of individual items which can be easily
             identified. Some difficulty may, however, be faced with regard to the large
             number of items and their relative mobility. In such cases, a distinction by
             value may be necessary, individual identification being made for high-
             value items and by groups for other items.
      (vii) Development of property is an asset head which can be easily sub-
            divided according to the buildings or plant for which the development work
            is undertaken.
      (viii) Patents, trademarks and designs are normally identifiable by the
             purchase agreements or the letters granting patent and by registration
             references in case of trademarks and designs. Intangible assets can be
             identified by reference to the purchase agreements (in case an intangible
             asset has been purchased) and by reference to the records and
             documents that substantiate the costs incurred by the company in the
             generation and development of an intangible asset.
      (ix)   Vehicles can be identified by reference to the registration books.
(k)   In cases where the details regarding allocation of cost over identified units of
      assets are not available, it would have to be made by an analysis of the
      purchases and the disposals of the preceding years. Among the difficulties
      which may be faced could be: (i) records for some of the years may not be
      available; (ii) the description in the records may not be complete; (iii) details of
      disposals may not have been properly recorded; (iv) subsequent additions to
      an existing asset may have been shown as a separate asset; (v) a single figure
      of cost may be assigned to a number of assets which have to be separately
      identified; (vi) assets purchased for one department may have been moved to
      other departments, and so on. The management, in consultation with the
      auditor, should make the best effort possible under the circumstances to
      identify the cost of each asset. In doing so, reasonable assumptions or
      approximations may be made, where necessary. For example, when details of
      disposals are not available, it may be assumed that the asset sold is the asset
      which was acquired earliest in point of time. Similarly, when the individual cost
      of a large number of small items is not available, one can estimate the cost of
      each item and pro-rate the total cost in the proportion of the estimated cost of
      the item to the aggregate estimated cost.
(l)   It may be useful if initial identification of assets is done by persons who are
      familiar with them, e.g., the maintenance staff. At the point of identification, a
      code number may be affixed on the asset which would give sufficient details for
      future identification.
(m) The initial identification of assets will often reveal a number of discrepancies
    between the assets as verified and the details compiled from the records. This
    may be on account of the features already considered in (l) above. This may
    also be due to the fact that assets might have been scrapped in earlier years
    but proper documentation may not have been made or that assets may have
    been broken up into smaller units or amalgamated into larger units or otherwise
    modified without changing the asset records. The degree of further inquiry
    necessary to reconcile these discrepancies would depend upon the nature of
                                               14
      the asset, its cost, the age of the asset, the extent of accounting or other
      records available and other relevant factors. However, the concept of
      materiality should be borne in mind in making these further inquiries, greater
      attention being devoted to assets which are of large value or of relatively recent
      purchase. Any adjustments that finally have to be made should be properly
      documented. The auditor should request the appropriate level of management
      to carry out necessary adjustments.
35. Whether these fixed assets have been physically verified by the
management at reasonable intervals; whether any material discrepancies were
noticed on such verification and if so, whether the same have been properly
dealt with in the books of account; [Paragraph 3(i)(b)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   The clause requires the auditor to comment whether the fixed assets of the
      company have been physically verified by the management at reasonable
      intervals. The clause further requires the auditor to comment whether any
      material discrepancies were noticed on such verification and if so, whether
      those discrepancies have been properly dealt with in the books of account.
(b)   Physical verification of the assets is the responsibility of the management and,
      therefore, has to be carried out by the management itself and not by the
      auditor. It is, however, necessary that the auditor satisfies himself that such
      verification was done and that there is adequate evidence on the basis of which
      he can arrive at such a conclusion. The auditor may prefer to observe the
      verification, particularly when verification of all assets can be made by the
      management on a single day or within a relatively short period of time. If,
      however, verification is a continuous process or if the auditor is not present
      when verification is made, then he should examine the instructions issued to
      the staff (which should, therefore, be in writing) by the management and should
      examine the working papers of the staff to substantiate the fact that verification
      was done and to determine the name and competence of the person who did
      the verification. In making this examination, it is necessary to ensure that the
      person making the verification had the necessary technical knowledge where
      such knowledge is required. It is not necessary that only the company's staff
      should make verification. It is also possible for verification to be made by
      outside expert agencies engaged by the management for the purpose.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(c)   The auditor should examine whether the method of verification was reasonable
      in the circumstances relating to each asset. For example, in the case of certain
      process industries, verification by direct physical check may not be possible in
      the case of assets which are in continuous use or which are concealed within
      larger units. It would not be realistic to expect the management to suspend
      manufacturing operations merely to conduct a physical verification of the fixed
      assets, unless there are compelling reasons which would justify such an extreme
      procedure. In such cases, indirect evidence of the existence of the assets may
      suffice. For example, the very fact that an oil refinery is producing at normal
      levels of efficiency may be sufficient to indicate the existence of the various
      process units even where each such unit cannot be verified by physical or visual
                                              15
      inspection. It may not be necessary to verify assets like building by measurement
      except where there is evidence of alteration/demolition. At the same time, in view
      of the possibility of encroachment, adverse possession, etc., it may be necessary
      for a survey to be made periodically of open land.
(d)   It is advisable that the assets are marked with "distinctive numbers" especially
      where assets are movable in nature and where verification of all assets is not
      being conducted at the same time.
(e)   The Order requires the auditor to report whether the management" has verified
      the fixed assets at reasonable intervals. What constitutes "reasonable intervals"
      depends upon the circumstances of each case. The factors to be taken into
      consideration in this regard include the number of assets, the nature of assets,
      the relative value of assets, difficulty in verification, situation and geographical
      spread of the location of the assets, etc. The management may decide about the
      periodicity of physical verification of fixed assets considering the above factors.
      While an annual verification may be reasonable, it may be impracticable to carry
      out the same in some cases. Even in such cases, the verification programme
      should be such that all assets are verified at least once in every three years.
      Where verification of all assets is not made during the year, it will be necessary
      for the auditor to report that fact, but if he is satisfied regarding the frequency of
      verification he should also make a suitable comment to that effect.
(f)   The auditor is required to state whether any material discrepancies were
      noticed on verification and, if so, whether the same have been properly dealt
      with in the books of account. The latter part of the statement is required to be
      made only if the discrepancies are material. The auditor has, therefore, to use
      his judgement to determine whether a discrepancy is material or not. In making
      this judgement, the auditor should consider not merely the cost of the asset and
      its relationship to the total cost of all assets but also the nature of the asset, its
      situation and other relevant factors. If a material discrepancy has been properly
      dealt with in the books of account (which may or may not imply a separate
      disclosure in the accounts depending on the circumstances of the case), it is
      not necessary for the auditor to give details of the discrepancy or of its
      treatment in the accounts but he is required to make a statement that a material
      discrepancy was noticed on the verification of fixed assets and that the same
      has been properly dealt with in the books of account.
36. Whether the title deeds of immovable properties are held in the name of
the company. If not, provide the details thereof; [Paragraph 3(i)(c)]
Relevant Provision
(a)   The clause requires the auditor to comment whether the title deeds of
      immovable properties are held in the name of the company, if not, to
      provide the details thereof. This clause shall cover the immovable
      properties which are included under the head Fixed Assets, as the
      reporting under Clause 3(i)(a) & 3(i)(b) pertains to Fixed Assets only.
(b)   The Act does not define the term "Immovable Property". However, as per
      General Clauses Act, 1897, "Immovable Property" shall include land, benefits
      to arise out of land, and things attached to the earth, or permanently fastened

                                                16
      to anything attached to the earth.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(c)   Based on review of the Fixed Assets Register, the auditor is required to
      identify immovable properties and verify the title deeds of such immovable
      properties. TDRs(Transfer Development Rights), Plant and Machinery
      embedded in land etc., are not considered as an immovable property.
(d)   The Order is silent as to what constitutes `title deeds'. In general, title
      deeds means a legal deed or document constituting evidence of a right,
      especially to the legal ownership of the immovable property.
(e)   Following documents mainly constitute title deeds of the immovable property:-
      (i)    Registered sale deed / transfer deed / conveyance deed, etc. of land, land
             & building together, etc. purchased, allotted, transferred by any person
             including any government, government authority / body/ agency /
             corporation, etc. to the company.
      (ii)   In case of leasehold land and land & buildings together, covered under
             the head fixed assets, the lease agreement duly registered with the
             appropriate authority.
(f)   The auditor should carry out detailed examination in the cases where
      immovable property is transferred as a result of conversion of partnership firm
      or LLP into company or amalgamation of companies, as in such cases title
      deeds may be in the name of the erstwhile entity.
(g)   Where the title deeds of the immovable property have been mortgaged with the
      Banks/ Financial Institutions, etc., for securing the borrowings and loan raised
      by the company, a confirmation about the same should be sought from the
      respective institution to this effect. The auditor may also consider verifying this
      information from the online records, if available, of the relevant State.
(h)   There may be instances where the title deeds were lost accidentally or
      otherwise. In such cases, the certified copies of the documents, as available
      with the company, and details about the FIR filed, about loss of such
      documents needs to be obtained and documented. The auditor should also
      seek written representation from the management in this regard.
(i)   The management is responsible for legal determination of the validity of title
      deeds, the auditor may refer SA 250 "Consideration of Laws and Regulations in
      an audit of Financial Statements" to the extent considered relevant and obtain
      sufficient and appropriate audit evidences. Further any discrepancy, including
      any pending / disputed court cases relating to ownership, needs detailed
      discussion with the management and should be properly documented. In this
      context, the auditor may also consider communicating with the legal counsel,
      whether in-house or external, in accordance with the principles enunciated in
      SA 501, Audit Evidence ­ Specific Considerations for Selected Items. The
      auditor may also consider disclosing the dispute while reporting under this
      clause.
(j)   The auditor should verify the title deeds available and reconcile the same with

                                              17
      the fixed assets register. The scrutiny of the title deeds of the immovable
      property may reveal a number of discrepancies between the details in the fixed
      assets register and the details available in the title deeds. This may be due to
      various reasons which needs to be examined.
(k)   The reporting under this clause, where the title deeds of the immovable
      property are not held in the name of the Company, may be made incorporating
      following details, in the form of a table or otherwise:
      a.    In case of land:-
            total number of cases,
            whether leasehold / freehold,
            gross block and net block, (as at Balance Sheet date), and
            remarks, if any.
      b.    In case of Buildings:-
            Total number of cases,
            gross block & net block, (as at Balance Sheet date) and
            remarks, if any.

37. Whether physical verification of inventory has been conducted at
reasonable intervals by the management and whether any material
discrepancies were noticed and if so, whether they have been properly dealt
with in the books of account; [Paragraph 3(ii)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   The clause requires the auditor to comment whether the management has
      conducted physical verification of inventory at reasonable intervals.
      The clause also requires the auditor to comment whether any material
      discrepancies were noticed on physical verification of inventory and if so,
      whether those material discrepancies have been properly dealt with in the
      books of account.
(b)   According to Accounting Standard (AS) 2, "Valuation of Inventories":
      "Inventories are assets:
      (a)   held for sale in the ordinary course of business;
      (b)   in the process of production for such sale; or
      (c)   in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production
            process or in the rendering of services."
(c)   Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale, for example,
      merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, computer software
      held for resale, or land and other property held for resale. Inventories also
      encompass finished goods produced, or work in progress being produced, by
      the enterprise and include materials, maintenance supplies, stores and spares,
      consumables and loose tools awaiting use in the production process. It may be
      noted that packing materials are also included in inventories. Inventories do
      not include machinery spares covered by Accounting Standard (AS) 10,

                                              18
       "Accounting for Fixed Assets", which can be used only in connection with an
       item of fixed asset and the use of which is expected to be irregular5.

Audit Procedures and Reporting

(d)    Physical verification of inventory is the responsibility of the management of the
       company which should verify all material items at least once in a year and more
       often in appropriate cases. It is, however, necessary that the auditor satisfies
       himself that the physical verification of inventories has been conducted at
       reasonable intervals by the management and that there is adequate evidence
       on the basis of which the auditor can arrive at such a conclusion. For example,
       the auditor may examine the documents relating to physical verification
       conducted by the management during the year as also at the end of the
       financial year covered by the auditor's report.

(e)    What constitutes "reasonable intervals" depends on circumstances of each
       case. The periodicity of the physical verification of inventories depends upon
       the nature of inventories, their location and the feasibility of conducting a
       physical verification. The management of a company normally determines the
       periodicity of the physical verification of inventories considering these factors.
       Normally, wherever practicable, all the items of inventories should be verified
       by the management of the company at least once in a year. It may be useful for
       the company to determine the frequency of verification by `A-B-C' classification
       of inventories, `A' category items being verified more frequently than `B'
       category and the latter more frequently than `C' category items.

(f)    The Order further requires the auditor to examine whether material
       discrepancies have been noticed on verification of inventories when compared
       with book records. Such an examination is possible when quantitative records
       are maintained for inventories but in many cases circumstances may warrant
       that records of individual issues (particularly for stores items) are not separately
       maintained and the closing inventory is established only on the basis of a year-
       end physical verification. Where such day-to-day records are not maintained,
       the auditor will not be able to arrive at book inventories except on the basis of
       an annual reconciliation of opening inventory, purchases and consumption.
       This reconciliation is possible when consumption in units can be co-related to
       the production, or can be established with reasonable accuracy. Where such
       reconciliation is not possible, the auditor would be unable to determine the
       discrepancies. If the item for which the discrepancy cannot be established is
       not material, the discrepancy, if any, will also not be material. For example, an
       item categorised as `C' in ABC analysis might not be material and therefore, the
       discrepancy, if any, in regard to such an item would not be material. In other
5
  Here it may be noted that AS-2 has been amended effective from 2016-17 which describe the same as
"Inventories do not include spare parts, servicing equipment and standby equipment which meet the definition of
property, plant and equipment as per AS 10, "Property, Plant and Equipment""
                                                          19
      cases, however, the auditor will have to report that he is unable to determine
      the discrepancy, if any, on physical verification for the item or class of items to
      be specified.

38. Whether the company has granted any loans, secured or unsecured to
companies, firms, Limited Liability Partnerships or other parties covered in the
register maintained under section 189 of the Companies Act, 2013. If so,
a)    Whether the terms and conditions of the grant of such loans are not
      prejudicial to the company's interest;
b)    Whether the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of interest
      has been stipulated and whether the repayments or receipts are regular;
c)    If the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more than 90
      days, and whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company for
      recovery of the principal and interest. [Paragraph 3(iii)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   There are three clauses under paragraph 3 (iii) of the Order. It is clarified that
      the auditor's comments on all the three clauses are to be made with reference
      to the loans granted to companies, firms, limited liability partnerships or other
      parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act.
(b)   Clause (iii)(a) covers determination of terms and conditions at the time of the
      grant of the loan. In this regard it may be noted the though the clause uses the
      term "grant" which would ordinarily be understood to mean loans granted/given
      during the year, however, it may be appropriate to include such loans also that
      were renewed during the year. Clauses (iii)(b) and (iii)(c) cover the loans
      granted during the year and also all loans having opening balances.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(c)   The duty of the auditor, under this clause, is to determine whether the company
      has granted any loans, secured or unsecured to companies, firms, limited
      liability partnerships or other parties covered in the register maintained under
      section 189 of the Act. If the company has done so, the auditor should report
      on the matters specified in sub-clauses (a), (b) and (c) of the clause 3(iii). The
      auditor is required to disclose the requisite information in his report in respect of
      all parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act
      irrespective of the period to which such loan relates. Further, there is no
      stipulation regarding the loan being given in cash or in kind. In the absence of
      such stipulation, the auditor is required to disclose the requisite information as
      specified in sub-clauses (a), (b) and (c) of the clause 3(iii), in his report in
      respect of all kind of loans whether long term or short term, whether given in
      cash or in kind to the parties covered in the register maintained under section
      189 of the Act.
(d)   Under section 189 of the Act, every company is required to maintain one or
      more registers which contain the particulars of all contracts or arrangements to
      which sub-section (2) of section 184 or section 188 of the Act applies. The
      particulars of all contracts or arrangements in which directors are interested is
                                               20
      required to be maintained by every company in Form MBP-4 as specified in
      Rule 16(1) of the Companies (Meetings of Board and its Powers) Rules, 2014.
      It is, however, suggested that the auditor should acquaint himself with all the
      requirements of sections 184, 188 and 189 of the Act and rules there under.
(e)   The auditor should obtain a list of companies, firms, limited liability partnerships
      or other parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act
      from the management. The auditor may also consider verifying returns filed or
      certificates obtained by the management in this regard. The auditor should
      examine all loans (secured or unsecured) granted by the company to identify
      those loans granted to companies, firms, limited liability partnerships or other
      parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act.
(f)   It may so happen that a party listed in the register maintained under section
      189 of the Act might have taken a loan from a company and repaid it during the
      same financial year. Therefore, while examining the loans, the auditor should
      also take into consideration the loan transactions that have been squared-up
      during the year and report such transactions under this clause. For example,
      the company has, during the financial year, granted a loan of Rs. 1,00,000/- to
      a firm in which one of the directors of the company is interested and the firm
      repays the loan during the financial year concerned. The auditor is also
      required to consider such transaction while commenting upon this clause of the
      Order.
Whether the terms and conditions of the grant of such loans are not prejudicial
to the company's interest; [Paragraph 3(iii)(a)]
Relevant Provision
(a)   This clause, read with Paragraph 3 (iii) of the Order, requires the auditor to
      examine and comment whether the terms and conditions of loans granted by
      the company (whether secured or unsecured) to companies, firms, Limited
      Liability Partnerships or other parties covered in the register maintained under
      section 189 of the Act are prejudicial to the interest of the company.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   The auditor should examine agreements entered into by the company with the
      parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act or any
      other supporting documents available for ascertaining the terms and conditions
      of all loans granted by the company to such companies, firms, Limited Liability
      Partnerships or other parties.
(c)   The auditor's duty is to determine whether, in his opinion, the terms and
      conditions of the loans given are prejudicial to the interest of the company. The
      "terms and conditions" would primarily include rate of interest, security, terms
      and period of repayment and restrictive covenants, if any. In determining
      whether the terms of the loans are prejudicial, the auditor would have to give
      due consideration to the other factors connected with the loan, including its
      ability to lend, terms of its borrowings, borrower's financial standing, credit
      rating, if available, the nature of the security, rate of interest and so on.



                                               21
      For the purpose of reporting under this clause the auditor may consider clause
      (7) of Section 186 of the Act wherein it is specified that no loan, covered under
      this section, shall be given at a rate of interest lower than the prevailing yield of
      one year, 3 year, five year or ten year government security close to the tenor of
      the loan, to the extent applicable.
(d)   It may be mentioned that clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 143 of the Act
      also requires the auditor to inquire whether loans and advances made by the
      company on the basis of security have been properly secured and whether the
      terms on which they have been made are prejudicial to the interests of the
      company or its members. The auditor's inquiry under the aforesaid clause may
      also be useful for the purposes of reporting under this clause.
(e)   Further, the auditor may also come across a situation where the company has
      a policy of providing loans at concessional rates of interest to its employees
      and such a loan has been given to a relative of the director who is also an
      employee of the company. In such a case also, the auditor would be required to
      examine and comment whether loan is prejudicial to the interests of the
      company. It may, however, be noted that normally such terms as per the policy
      followed by the company cannot be said to be prejudicial to the interest of the
      company if other employees of the company also receive the loan on the same
      terms.
(f)   The following is an example of an unfavourable comment by the auditor under
      this clause:
      "According to the information and explanations given to us and based on the
      audit procedures conducted by us, we are of the opinion that the terms and
      conditions of loans granted by the company to two parties covered in the
      register maintained under section 189 of the Companies Act, 2013, (total loan
      amount granted Rs ---- and balance outstanding as at balance sheet date Rs --
      ------) are prejudicial to the company's interest on account of the fact that the
      loans have been granted at an interest rate of X% per annum which is
      significantly lower than the cost of funds to the company and also lower than
      the prevailing yield of government security close to the tenor of the loan"
Whether the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of interest has
been stipulated and whether the repayments or receipts are regular;
[Paragraph 3(iii)(b)]
Relevant Provision
(a)   This part of the clause requires the auditor to report upon the stipulation of
      schedule of repayment of principal and payment of interest and on regularity of
      repayments of principal amount of loans and receipts of interest thereon. The
      scope of auditor's inquiry under this clause is restricted in respect of
      companies, firms, Limited Liability partnerships or other parties covered in the
      register maintained under section 189 of the Act.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   The auditor has to examine from the loan agreements / mutually agreed letter
      of arrangement, as the case may be, whether the schedule of repayment of

                                               22
      principal and payment of interest has been stipulated at the time of sanction. If
      there is no such agreement / arrangement or the agreement / arrangement
      does not contain the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of
      interest, the auditor shall report that there is no stipulation of schedule of
      repayment of principal and payment of interest.
(c)   The auditor has to examine whether the repayment of principal and receipt of
      interest are regular. The word `regular' should be taken to mean that the
      principal and interest should normally be received whenever they fall due,
      respectively.
(d)   In case where the auditee company is a non-banking finance company, the
      auditor, for reporting under this clause, would also need to refer various
      directions for non-banking finance companies issued by Reserve Bank of India.
(e)   In case of non-stipulation of schedule of repayment of principal & payment of
      Interest, the auditor should state the fact and may report that he is unable to
      make specific comment on the regularity of repayment of principal & payment
      of interest, in such cases.
(f)   In case where the schedule of repayment of principal & payment of interest is
      stipulated but repayment of principal or payment of interest is not regular then
      the auditor may report the fact and may give no. of cases and remarks, if any.
If the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more than 90
days, and whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company for
recovery of the principal and interest. [Paragraph 3(iii)(c)]
Relevant Provision
(a)   This clause requires the auditor to state the total amount overdue for more than
      90 days and whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company for
      recovery of the principal and interest. An amount is considered to be overdue
      when the payment has not been received on the due date as per the lending
      arrangement. In such cases, the auditor has to examine the steps, if any, taken
      for recovery of this amount. It may, however, be noted that the scope of the
      auditor's inquiry under this clause is restricted to loans given by the company to
      parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   Under this clause, the auditor is required to disclose total amount overdue for
      more than 90 days. The auditor should examine the agreement or other
      documents containing the schedule of repayment of the loans granted to
      parties covered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act. The
      auditor should then verify whether the repayments as per the books of account
      are in accordance with the schedule of repayment of the loans as per
      agreement or arrangement. This examination would enable the auditor to
      determine the total amount overdue (principal and interest) for more than 90
      days from such parties as at balance sheet date. The auditor should disclose
      the aggregate of the total amount of overdue for more than 90 days in respect
      of loans granted to such parties.


                                              23
(c)   While examining whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company
      for recovery of principal and interest, the auditor would have to consider the
      facts and circumstances of each case, including the amounts involved. It is not
      necessary that steps to be taken must necessarily be legal steps. Depending
      upon the circumstances, the degree of delay in recovery and other similar
      factors, issue of reminders or the sending of an advocate's or solicitor's notice,
      may amount to "reasonable steps" even though no legal action is taken. The
      auditor is not, therefore, required to comment on the mere absence of legal
      steps if he is otherwise satisfied that reasonable steps have been taken by the
      company. The auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to
      support the fact that reasonable steps have been taken for recovery of the
      principal and interest of loans granted by the company. The auditor should ask
      the management to give in writing, the steps which have been taken. The
      auditor should arrive at his opinion only after consideration of the
      management's representations and other relevant evidence.
(d)   Reporting of such cases may be made incorporating following details:
      No. of Cases
      Principal Amount Overdue
      Interest Overdue
      Total Overdue
      Remarks, if any (specify whether reasonable steps have been taken by the
      Company for recovery of principal amount and interest)
39. In respect of loans, investments, guarantees, and security whether
provisions of section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 have been
complied with. If not, provide the details thereof. [Paragraph 3(iv)]
Compliance of Section 185 of the Companies Act 2013: Loan to directors, etc.
Relevant Provisions
(a)   Under this clause the auditor is required to report on the compliance of Section
      185 of the Act. The text of section 185 is reproduced in APPENDIX V to this
      Guidance Note.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   For this purpose, the auditor should carry out the following procedures:
      (i)     Obtain from the management the details of the directors or any other
              person in whom the director is interested. He may also check the details
              of the persons covered under this clause from MBP-1 and from the
              Register maintained u/s 189 of the Act.
      (ii)    Obtain and check the details of the transactions carried out with such
              persons, including of any guarantee given and security provided.
      (iii)   Further examine the details to find out whether any of the transaction is
              attracting the provisions of section 185 of the Act.

                                               24
      (iv)   In case of transactions that are covered under the exceptions as provided
             under section 185, the auditor should obtain the necessary evidence in
             support of such exception.
(c)   Section 185 prohibits advance of any loan to directors, etc., directly or
      indirectly. What is an indirect loan is not defined in section 185 or elsewhere in
      the Act. Indirect is interpreted in case of Dr. Fredie Ardeshir Mehta v. Union of
      India [1991] 70 Comp. Cas. 210 (Bom.) to mean a loan to a director through the
      agency of one or more intermediaries. For example, if company A borrows from
      company B and lends the same to company C and loan from B to C is covered
      by section 185. In this case section 185 shall also be applicable in case of
      lending from company A to C because it would be construed as an indirect loan
      from B to C.
(d)   The auditor should report the nature of non-compliance, the maximum amount
      outstanding during the year and the amount outstanding as at the balance
      sheet date in respect of
      (i)     the Directors; and

      (ii)    persons in whom directors are interested (specify the relationship with
              the Director concerned).

B.    Compliance of Section 186 of the Companies Act 2013: Loan and
      investment by company
Relevant Provisions
(a)   Under this clause the auditor is also required to report on the compliance of
      Section 186 of the Act, which governs giving of loans, and guarantee or
      providing and security in connection with a loan, by a company to any person
      or other body corporate and acquiring securities of any other body corporate by
      a company. The section also prohibits a company from making investments
      through more than two layers of investment companies. The text of Section 186
      and relevant extract of Rules 11, 12 & 13 of Companies (Meeting of Board and
      its Powers) Rules, 2014 is reproduced in Appendix V to this Guidance Note.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   The duty of the auditor under this clause is to determine whether the loans and
      investments made by the company comply with the requirements of the
      provisions of Section 186 of the Act.
      For this purpose the auditor should:
      (i)    Obtain the details of, loans given to any person or other body corporate,
             guarantee given or security provided in connection with a loan to any
             other body corporate or person and securities acquired of any other body
             corporate by way of subscription, purchase or otherwise, made during the
             year as well as the outstanding balances as at the beginning of the year.
      (ii)   Check whether, at any point of time during the year in case of aforesaid
             transactions, the company has exceeded the limit of sixty per cent of its
             paid-up share capital, free reserves and securities premium account or

                                              25
              one hundred per cent of its free reserves (as defined in section 2(43) of
              the Act and securities premium account, whichever is more.
              If it exceeds the limits specified above, whether prior approval by means
              of a special resolution passed at a general meeting has been obtained.
      (iii)   Check whether the company has made investments through more than
              two layers of investment companies
      (iv)    Check whether the company has disclosed the full particulars of the loan
              given, investment made or guarantee given or security provided in the
              financial statement including the purpose for which the same is proposed
              to be utilized by the recipient.
      (v)     Check whether the company has passed the board resolution as
              prescribed and obtained the prior approval, wherever required, from the
              public financial institution concerned where any term loan is subsisting.
      (vi)    Check whether the loan has been given to company registered under
              section 12 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, if so,
              whether the inter-corporate loan or deposits taken by such company are
              within the limits prescribed, if so, obtain the certificate of statutory auditors
              of that company from the management to ensure the compliance.*
      (vii) Check whether rate of interest is not lower than the prevailing yield of one
            year, three year, five year or ten year government security closest to the
            tenor of the loan granted.
      (viii) Check if the company is in default in the repayment of any deposits
             accepted or in payment of interest thereon, then the company is not
             allowed to give any loan or guarantee or any security or an acquisition till
             such default is subsisting.
      (ix)    Check whether the company has maintained a register (as per MBP-2) in
              the manner as prescribed and also check the compliances of other
              provisions and relevant rules.
      (x)     It may be noted that the aforesaid section is not applicable in respect of
              loan made, guarantee given or security provided by banking company or
              an insurance company or a housing finance company in the ordinary
              course of its business or a company engaged in the business of financing
              of companies or of providing infrastructural facilities,. However the
              restriction with regard to the investment through more than two layers of
              investment companies would be applicable for such companies also. The
              auditor may ensure compliance accordingly.
(c)   It may also be noted that the provisions of section 186 of the Act shall not apply
      to a government company engaged in defence production and a government
      company, other than a listed company, in case such company obtains approval

*
 The Sub section 1 of Section 186 which restricts investment through more than two layers of investment
companies is proposed to be deleted by Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2016 pending at appropriate level for
approval.
                                                      26
       of the ministry or department of the central government which is
       administratively in charge of the company, or, as the case may be, the State
       Government before making any loan or giving any guarantee or providing any
       security or making any investment under the section. [vide Notification F. No.
       1/2/2014-CL.V dated 5th June 2015]
Non-compliance may be reported incorporating following details:-
S.No.                          Non-compliance of Section 186                                    Remarks,
                                                                                                if any
                                            Name     of Amount              Balance as
                                            Company/    Involved            at Balance
                                            Party                           Sheet Date
1.        Investment     through
          more than two layers of
          investment companies
2.        Loan       given       or
          guarantee given or
          security provided or
          acquisition of securities
          exceeding the limits
          without prior approval
          by means of a special
          resolution
3.        Loan given at rate of
          interest   lower than
          prescribed
4.        Any other default


40. In case the company has accepted deposits, whether the directives
issued by the Reserve Bank of India and the provisions of sections 73 to 76 or
any other relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the rules framed
thereunder, where applicable, have been complied with? If not, the nature of
such contraventions be stated; if an order has been passed by Company Law
Board or National Company Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any
Court or any other Tribunal, whether the same has been complied with or not?
[Paragraph 3(v)]6
Relevant Provisions
(a)    The clause, in addition to requiring the auditors to report on compliance with
       the requirements of sections 73 to 76 of the Act, and the directives of the
       Reserve Bank of India for acceptance of public deposits, also requires the
       auditor to report on compliance with the order, if any, passed by the Company
       Law Board or National Company Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any

6
 The text of sections 73 to 76 of the Act is reproduced in Appendix XII to this Guidance Note. The text of the
Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014 is given in Appendix XIII to this Guidance Note.
                                                         27
      Court or any other Tribunal.
(b)   Section 2(31) has defined `deposit' to include any receipt of money by way of
      deposit or loan or in any other form by a company, but does not include such
      category of amount as may be prescribed in consultation with the Reserve
      Bank of India.
(c)   Section 73 of the Act, prohibits a company (other than a banking company,
      non-banking financial company (NBFC) and such other company as may be
      specified by the central government in consultation with the Reserve Bank of
      India), to invite, accept or renew deposits from the public except in the manner
      provided in this section and the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules,
      2014.
(d)   Section 76 of the Act, permits the public companies having specified net worth
      or turnover, to accept deposits from persons other than its members subject to
      compliance with section 73 and the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits)
      Rules, 2014.
(e)   The central government in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India has
      notified the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014. These Rules are
      not applicable to a banking company, a NBFC, a housing finance company and
      a company specified by the central government under the proviso to sub-
      section (1) of section 73 of the Act.
(f)   The Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014 cover the following main
      items:
      (i)     the nature of deposits which may be accepted ;
      (ii)    the terms and conditions of acceptance of deposits by companies from its
              members and persons other than its members;
      (iii)   the limits up to which the deposits can be accepted;
      (iv)    the form and particulars of advertisement for deposits;
                   Manner and extent of deposit insurance
                   Creation of security
                   Appointment of trustee for depositors
      (v)     the form of application for deposits;
      (vi)    furnishing of receipts to depositors;
      (vii) Maintenance of liquid assets, creation of security and appointment of
            trustee for depositors
      (viii) maintenance of register(s) of depositors;
      (ix)    Maintenance of liquid assets;
      (x)     general provisions regarding the repayment of deposits and payment of
              interest;
      (xi)    the returns to be filed with the Registrar of Companies .
                                                 28
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(g)   The auditor should plan to test for compliance with the provisions of sections 73
      to 76 of the Act and the Rules made thereunder i.e. the Companies
      (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014. For such purpose, the auditor should
      also obtain an understanding of the requirements of sections 73 to 76 and rules
      thereunder.
(h)   The auditor should examine compliance by the company with regard to all the
      matters specified in the sections and the Rules and not merely to the limits of
      the deposits. Where the number of deposits is very large, it is obviously not
      feasible for the auditor to satisfy himself that every single deposit complies with
      the rules. He should, therefore, examine the system by which deposits are
      accepted and records are maintained and make a reasonable test check to
      ensure the correctness of the system. The auditor may also make a "check list"
      to ensure that all the requirements of the Rules regarding the records to be
      maintained, returns to be filed, etc., are complied with.
(i)   The auditor should examine the efficacy of the internal controls instituted by the
      company so that the deposits accepted by the company remain within the
      limits. It may be difficult for the auditor to ascertain that deposits accepted by
      the company are within the limits on each day of the accounting year. He
      would, therefore, be justified in making a reasonable test check to ensure that
      the company has not accepted deposits during the year in excess of the limits.
      For financing companies, the auditor should make a similar examination having
      regard to the Reserve Bank directives in force from time to time.
(j)   Apart from the audit procedures mentioned above, the auditor should also
      enquire from the management about the possible instances of non-compliance
      with sections 73 to 76 or any other relevant provisions of the Act and the
      relevant rules. The auditor should also enquire from the management about
      any order passed by the Company Law Board or National Company Law
      Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any Court or any other Tribunal for
      contravention of these sections or any other relevant provision(s) of the Act and
      the relevant rules. The auditor should obtain a management representation to
      the effect whether:
      (i)    the company has complied with the directives issued by the Reserve
             Bank of India and the provision of section 73 to 76 (as the case may be)
             of the Act and the relevant rules; and
      (ii)   where an order has been passed by any of the relevant authorities
             mentioned in the clause, and if so, the company has complied with the
             requirements of the Order.

(k)   In case where the auditor is of the view that any kind of contravention of
      sections 73 to 76 or any other relevant provisions of the Act or relevant rules or
      directives from Reserve Bank of India, if any, has taken place, the auditor
      should state in his report that the provisions of that section(s) and/or relevant
      rules, as the case may be, have not been complied with. The auditor should
      also report the nature of contraventions.
(l)   The auditor, under this clause, is required to verify whether the company has
                                              29
      complied with the order passed by Company Law Board or National Company
      Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any Court or any other Tribunal.
      Where any of such authorities has passed an order, the auditor should examine
      the steps taken by the company to comply with the said order. If the company
      has not complied with the order, the same is to be reported stating therein the
      nature of contravention and the fact that the company has not complied with
      the order issued by the Company Law Board or National Company Law
      Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any Court or any other Tribunal.
41. Whether maintenance of cost records has been specified by the Central
Government under sub-section (1) of Section 148 of the Companies Act, 2013
and whether such accounts and records have been so made and maintained.
[Paragraph 3(vi)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   Section 148 (1) of the Act, specifies that the Central Government may, by
      order, in respect of such class of companies engaged in production of such
      goods or providing such services as may be prescribed, direct that particulars
      relating to the utilization of material or labour or to other items of cost as may
      be prescribed shall also be included in the books of account kept by that class
      of companies. Pursuant to this requirement and in exercise of the powers
      conferred by sub-section (1) of section 469 of the Act, the Central Government
      has made rules in respect of a number of classes of companies. These books
      of account and records form part of the books of account of the company within
      the meaning of Section 2 (13) of the Act.
      In exercise of the power conferred by sub-section (1) and (2) of section 469
      and section 148 of the Act, the Central Government has issued the Companies
      (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 which has specified the list of class of
      companies in which maintenance of cost record is prescribed under section
      148.The Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 are available at
      Appendix VI to this Guidance Note.
(b)   The Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014 has defined "cost
      records" as books of account relating to utilization of materials, labour and
      other items of cost as applicable to the production of goods or provision of
      services as provided in section 148 of the Act, and these rules. These rules
      also prescribed the items of cost to be included in the Books of Account.
(c)   Sub-section (2) of Section 148 of the Act, also provides that where, in the
      opinion of the Central Government, it is necessary to do so it may by order,
      direct that the audit of cost records of class of companies, which are covered
      under sub-section (1) and which have a net worth of such amount as may be
      prescribed or a turnover of such amount as may be prescribed, shall be
      conducted in the manner specified in the order.
(d)    Rule 4 of the aforesaid Rules lays down the conditions subject to which the
      companies covered by these Rules need to get their cost records audited
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(e)   The Order requires the auditor to report whether cost accounts and records

                                              30
      have been made and maintained. The word "made" applies in respect of cost
      accounts (or cost statements) and the word "maintained" applies in respect of
      cost records relating to materials, labour, overheads, etc. The auditor has to
      report under the clause irrespective of whether a cost audit has been ordered
      by the central government. The auditor should obtain a written representation
      from the management stating (a) whether cost records are required to be
      maintained for any product(s) or services of the company under section 148 of
      the Act, and The Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014; and (b)
      whether cost accounts and records are being made and maintained regularly.
      The auditor should also obtain a list of books/records made and maintained in
      this regard. The Order does not require a detailed examination of such
      records. The auditor should, therefore, conduct a general review of the cost
      records to ensure that the records as prescribed are made and maintained. He
      should, of course, make such reference to the records as is necessary for the
      purposes of his audit.
(f)   It is necessary that the extent of the examination made by the auditor is clearly
       brought out in his report. The following wording is, therefore, suggested:
      "We have broadly reviewed the books of account maintained by the company
       pursuant to the Rules made by the Central Government for the maintenance of
       cost records under section 148 of the Act, and are of the opinion that prima
       facie, the prescribed accounts and records have been made and maintained."
(g)   Where the auditor finds that the records have not been written or are not prima
      facie complete, it will be necessary for the auditor to make a suitable comment
      in his report.
42. Whether the company is regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues
including Provident Fund, employees' State Insurance, Income-tax, Sales-tax,
Service Tax, duty of customs, duty of excise, value added tax, cess and any
other statutory dues to the appropriate authorities and if not, the extent of the
arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year
concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became
payable, shall be indicated; [Paragraph 3(vii)(a)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   This clause requires the auditor to report upon the regularity of the company in
      depositing undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, employees' state
      insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of custom, duty of excise,
      value added tax, cess and any other statutory dues to appropriate authorities.
      If the company is not regular in depositing the above mentioned undisputed
      statutory dues, the auditor is required to state the extent of arrears of statutory
      dues which have remained outstanding as at the last day of the financial year
      concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became
      payable.
(b)   It may be noted that the use of the words "any other statutory dues" indicates
      that the clause covers all type of dues under various statues which may be
      applicable to a company having regard to its nature of business. Apart from the
      statutory dues listed, the auditor is required to report on the regularity of the

                                              31
      company in depositing "any other statutory dues" payable by the company to
      appropriate authorities under the statutes applicable to the company.
(c)   The intention of the government, in this clause is to ascertain how regular the
      company is in depositing statutory dues with the appropriate authorities. Since
      the emphasis of the clause is on the regularity, the scope of auditor's inquiry is
      restricted to only those statutory dues, which the company is required to
      deposit regularly to an authority. The auditor is not required to ascertain
      whether the company is regular in depositing amounts, which may be levied by
      an appropriate authority from time to time upon occurrence or non-occurrence
      of certain events and therefore are not required to be paid regularly. Any sum,
      which is to be regularly paid to an appropriate authority under a statute
      (whether Central, State or Local or Foreign) applicable to the company, should
      be considered as a "statutory due" for the purpose of this clause. In other
      words, obligation to pay a statutory due is created or arises out of a statute,
      rather than being based on an independent contractual or legal relationship.
      Thus, examples of "statutory dues" would include municipal taxes, taxes
      deducted at source, fees payable to the licensing authority in respect of
      business being carried on under license granted by an authority, say a cinema
      hall. Accordingly, any sum payable to an electricity company as electricity bill
      would not constitute a statutory due despite the fact that such a company has
      been established under a statute. This is so because the due has arisen on
      account of contract of supply of goods or services between the parties.
      However, care shall have to be taken that in case any dues are recoverable as
      arrears of land revenue by the concerned authority, the same shall be treated
      as a statutory due.
(d)   With reference to regularity, it is also important to distinguish amongst the
      various items stated in the clause. The auditor should very clearly understand
      the nature of each statutory due payable by the company while examining the
      aspect of regularity before commenting on the same. For instance, the
      regularity is a normal feature in case of certain statutory dues such as,
      provident fund, employees' state insurance, sales tax, etc., because the
      companies are required to deposit the money with appropriate authorities on a
      monthly or quarterly basis. But this is not the case in respect of, say, duty of
      custom on import of goods or demands arising on account of assessment
      orders etc., which a company is required to pay as and when an event giving
      rise to the liability of the company occurs. Such dues should be construed to
      have been paid regularly if the company deposits them as and when they
      become due. However, the auditor would be required to comment upon the
      regularity of the company in depositing the installments, if any, granted by an
      authority in respect of a demand against the company.
(e)   An important issue to consider is the question of regularity of payment of import
      duty where the goods had been imported, say, five years back and were placed
      in the bonded warehouse and even till the end of the financial year under audit,
      the goods have not been removed from such warehouse. It may be noted that
      when the imported goods are lodged in a bonded warehouse, the payment of
      import duty is to be made when the goods are removed from the bonded


                                              32
       warehouse. Till the time7 the importer opts to remove the goods from the
       warehouse, the importer is required to incur the rent and interest expenditure on
       the amount of customs duty payable. Since the payment of the custom duty is
       not due in the current case, the question of regularity does not arise in respect of
       custom duty. However, it may be noted that the interest and rent that are
       required to be incurred under section 61 of the Customs Act, 1962 would come
       under other statutory dues and the auditor would have to examine and comment
       upon the regularity of the company in depositing such interest and rent.
(f)    Non-payment of advance income tax would constitute default in payment of
       statutory dues. It may, however, happen that the company might not have any
       taxable income on the due dates on which advance tax is required to be paid.
       If such a company has an income after the last date on which the advance tax
       was required to be paid and consequently the company incurs interest under
       the relevant provisions of the Income Tax Act, 1961, it should not be construed
       that the company is not regular in depositing advance tax.
(g)    It may be noted that the auditor has to report on the regularity of deposit of
       statutory dues irrespective of the fact whether or not there are any arrears on
       the balance sheet date. This is because there may be situations where a
       company has deposited the relevant dues before the end of the year while it
       has been in default in the matter for a significant part of the year. In cases
       where there are no arrears on the balance sheet date but the company has
       been irregular during the year in depositing the statutory dues, the auditor
       should state this fact while reporting under this clause.
(h)    For the purpose of this clause, the auditor should consider a matter as
       "disputed" where there is a positive evidence or action on the part of the
       company to show that it has not accepted the demand for payment of tax or
       duty, e.g., where it has gone into appeal. For this purpose, where an
       application for rectification of mistake (e.g., under section 154 of the Income
       Tax Act, 1961) has been made by the company, the amount should be
       regarded as disputed. Where the demand notice/intimation for the payment of a
       statutory due is for a certain amount and the dispute relates only to a part and
       not the whole of such amount, only such amount should be treated as disputed
       and the balance amount should be regarded as undisputed. It is not necessary
       for the auditor to examine the sustainability or otherwise of the claim of the
       company regarding disputed amounts. It is sufficient for his purpose if the
       evidence available shows that the amount is disputed by the company. It may
       also be noted that the Order has clarified that mere representation to the
       concerned Department shall not be treated as a dispute.
(i)    A question may arise that when do the statutory dues become payable. There
       can be two views with regard to the question. On the one hand, it can be
       argued that the statutory dues referred to in this clause become payable on the
       last date by which payment can be made without attracting penalty and/or

7
 It may be noted that section 61 of the Customs Act, 1962 provides that any goods deposited in the warehouse
may be stored upto a period of one year in the bonded warehouse. The time limit is five years in case of capital
goods and for other good three years which are intended for use in any 100% EOU. The said Act, however, also
provides for extension of the warehousing period by the relevant authorities subject to certain prescribed
conditions.
                                                          33
      interest under the relevant law. On the other hand, it can also be argued that
      the amounts referred to in the clause become so payable as at the date of the
      expiry of the stay granted by the authorities or, where installments have been
      granted for the payment of statutory dues referred to in the clause, the date on
      which the default occurs and the amount becomes payable to the authorities.
      As the purpose of this clause is to indicate the amounts which have become
      actually payable and are outstanding as at the last day of the financial year
      concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became
      payable, the latter view seems to conform more closely to the requirements of
      the Order.
      It may be noted that penalty and/or interest levied under the respective laws
      would be covered within the term "amounts payable".
(j)   The report should be restricted to the actual arrears and should not include the
      amounts which have not fallen due for payment to appropriate authority and
      have been recognised as outstanding dues at the balance sheet date.
(k)   It is possible that in a large company where there are a number of departments
      with separate payrolls and where payments are spread over a number of days,
      the collection of data regarding the provident fund/employees' state insurance
      collections and the company's contribution thereto may take some time. In
      order to ensure that deposit of the dues is made in time, the company may
      make lump-sum deposits of estimated amounts and adjust the excess or deficit
      against the following month's deposit. If this method is consistently followed
      and the difference between the total dues and the lump-sum deposit is not
      significant, it need not be considered that dues have not been regularly
      deposited and no unfavorable comment is necessary.8
Audit Procedures and Reporting

(l)   The auditor should make plans to test whether the company is regular in
      depositing undisputed statutory dues. The auditor, in order to be able to
      comment on this clause, should have a general understanding of the various
      statutes governing the company and the dues payable by the company under
      those statutes. The auditor should also enquire of the management of the
      company about the statutes under which the company is required to pay any
      statutory dues. The auditor should also discuss with the management, the
      policies or procedures adopted for identification and payment of statutory dues.
      The auditor may also obtain from the management or himself prepare a
      calendar of dates for submission of various statutory dues by the company for
      his reference.

(m) The information necessary to comply with this requirement of the Order may be
    obtained from the company in the form of a statement. The statement should
    contain a list of various statutes under which the company is required to make
    payments regularly to appropriate authorities, the kind of payments under each
    statute, the due date for making the payment to the appropriate authority, the
    date on which the payment is made by the company, the arrears not due and

8
 This concept of materiality ­ which is fundamental to the entire auditing process ­ should be borne in mind
while reporting on this clause as in case of other clauses of the Order.
                                                        34
      the arrears overdue for more than six months. The auditor should verify the
      statement provided by the management with the underlying documents and
      records. The auditor's general understanding of the various statutes governing
      the company and the dues payable by the company under those statutes would
      help the auditor in assessing the completeness of the statement. The auditor
      should recognise that there could be a situation that a statutory due might have
      become payable but has not been captured by the accounting and internal
      control systems established by the enterprise and, therefore, the auditor should
      perform procedures to mitigate risk arising from such a situation.

(n)   The auditor should obtain a written representation with reference to the date of
      the balance sheet from the management:
      (i)     specifying the cases and the amounts considered disputed;
      (ii)    containing a list of the cases and the amounts in respect of the statutory
              dues which are undisputed and have remained outstanding for a period of
              more than six months from the date they became payable; and
      (iii)   containing a statement as to the completeness of the information provided
              by the management.
(o)   While the auditor has to report upon the regularity of the deposit, he is        not
      required to specify in detail each instance where there has been a delay or      the
      extent of the delay. It should be sufficient if he indicates whether generally   the
      deposits have been regular or otherwise. The following are examples of           the
      wordings, which may be used in relevant situations:
      (i)     "undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, or employees' state
              insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of custom , duty of
              excise, value added tax, cess have been regularly deposited by the
              company with the appropriate authorities in all cases during the year".
      (ii)    "undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, employees' state
              insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of custom, duty of
              excise, value added tax, cess have generally been regularly deposited
              with the appropriate authorities though there has been a slight delay in a
              few cases".
      (iii)   "undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, employees' state
              insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of custom, duty of
              excise, value added tax, cess have not generally been regularly deposited
              with the appropriate authorities though the delays in deposit have not
              been serious".
      (iv)    "undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, employees' state
              insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of custom , duty of
              excise , value added tax, cess have not been regularly deposited with the
              appropriate authorities and there have been serious delays in a large
              number of cases".
(p)   If the auditor is of the opinion that the company is not regular in depositing
                                               35
      undisputed statutory dues including provident fund, employees' state
      insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of custom , duty of excise ,
      value added tax, cess and any other statutory dues with the appropriate
      authorities, the extent of the arrears of outstanding statutory dues as at the last
      day of the financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from
      the date they became payable, are required to be mentioned by the auditor in
      his audit report. In indicating the arrears, the period to which the arrears relate
      should also preferably be given and further, wherever possible, the fact of
      subsequent clearance or otherwise may also be indicated. The auditor may
      report in the following format:-

      Statement of Arrears of Statutory Dues Outstanding for More than Six Months
       Name      Nature of   Amount     Period to which    Due     Date of Remarks,
       of the    the Dues     (Rs.)      the amount        Date    Payment if any
       Statute                              relates


43. Where dues of income Tax or sales Tax or service Tax or duty of customs
or duty of excise or value added tax have not been deposited on account of
any dispute, then the amounts involved and the forum where dispute is
pending shall be mentioned. {A mere representation to the concerned
Department shall not be treated as a dispute.} [Paragraph 3(vii)(b)]

Relevant Provisions
(a)   This clause requires that in case of disputed statutory dues, the amounts
      involved should be stated along with the forum where the dispute is pending.
      Therefore, even minor amounts would be required to be reported under this
      clause. The amount should be reported in a manner so that the reader is able
      to understand the dispute and the amount involved therein.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   The audit procedures applied by the auditor for commenting on the previous
      clause, including obtaining a statement from the management in regard to the
      matters specified in the clause, would help the auditor in determining the dues
      of sales tax/income tax/duty of customs/service tax/duty of excise that have not
      been deposited on account of any dispute, the amounts involved and the forum
      where dispute is pending. The auditor should also obtain a management
      representation about the disputed dues, the amounts involved and the forum
      where the dispute is pending. The auditor should carry out necessary audit
      procedures to verify the information provided by the management.
(c)   A show-cause or similar notice generally contains the requirements/queries of
      the assessing officer. Normally, issuance of a show cause notice by the
      concerned department should not be construed to be a demand payable by the
      company. However, in some cases, a show cause notice and demand may be
      combined in one document. Normally, in such cases, the demand would not be
                                              36
      construed to have arisen till the time the assessee has disposed off the
      requirements of the show cause order. Hence, it would be necessary to evaluate
      each situation individually.
(d)   Tax demands that have been set aside are clearly not `dues'. Similarly, if a
      demand has been referred for reassessment and the effect of such referral is
      the cancellation of the earlier demand, this too would not constitute an amount
      due. The wording of the order would be of significance; if the demand is not
      cancelled, it will remain disputed dues. As far as demands that have been
      stayed are concerned, these should be regarded as disputed dues. These
      should be disclosed along with a disclosure of the fact of stay. The fact that a
      stay has been granted does not mean that the authority granting the stay has
      held that the amount in question is not a valid demand against the company.
      The stay normally is a concession that the amount may not be deposited
      immediately or that it may be deposited in installments. Sometimes a stay is
      granted if the assessee provides a bank guarantee. It may also be noted that
      there may be a situation that the appellate authority has decided a case in
      favour of the company but the Department may prefer to make an appeal to a
      higher authority. In such a case, there is considered to be no dispute until the
      time the Department makes an appeal to the relevant appellate authority.
      Further, in case where the amount under the dispute is pending for an appeal
      to be filed and the time limit for filing the appeal has lapsed, the disputed
      amount would become a statutory due and the reporting responsibilities of the
      auditor as are applicable to any other undisputed statutory due under clause
      3(vii)(a) of the Order would become applicable. Further, in case where the
      amount under dispute has not been paid before filing the appeal and no appeal
      is filed within the time allowed and the time limit for filing the appeal has
      expired, the disputed amount would become a statutory due.

(e)   It is possible that in respect of same nature of statutory dues, there may be
      more than one dispute pertaining to different periods for which, appeals might
      have been filed separately. For example, different years' income tax liabilities
      might have been disputed at different levels of appellate authorities. Hence, in
      such cases, the information required by the clause should be given separately
      in respect of each period. In the case of a large company having a number of
      manufacturing and marketing divisions, it would be quite normal that many
      cases relating to sales tax, income tax, excise, customs, value added tax, etc.,
      are disputed and are pending at various stages. It cannot be the intention of the
      clause that each case is listed separately. It is, therefore, proper to summarise
      the cases stage-wise under each broad head, e.g., sales tax, income-tax, duty
      of customs, duty of excise, and give the particulars as indicated in paragraph
      (g) below.

(f)   The information required by the clause may be reported in the following format:



                                             37
                                          Statement of Disputed Dues
          Name        Nature      Amount          Period to           Forum where     Remarks, if
          of the      of the       (Rs.)          which the            dispute is        any
          Statute     Dues                         amount               pending
                                                   relates


(g)      Further, a plain reading of the clause suggests that the amounts to be reported
         under clause 3(vii)(b) of the Order are those which have not been deposited on
         account of any dispute, irrespective of the treatment of such disputed amounts
         in accounts. It is quite possible that an amount is disputed and has not been
         deposited but on consideration of the likely outcome of the dispute, a provision
         has been made in the accounts. Such an amount will need to be reported,
         notwithstanding that it has been provided for. Similarly, even if it had not been
         provided for, it would have to be reported as long as it is not deposited. It is
         also possible that an amount is disputed, has been deposited and on
         consideration of the likely outcome of the dispute, has been shown as a
         recoverable. Though such an amount is not contemplated for reporting under
         the clause, since it has been deposited, the fact of such deposit having been
         made under protest should be brought out by the auditor in his report under the
         clause.
         Whether a disputed amount should be provided for in the accounts or not will
         need to be judged in the context of Accounting Standard (AS) 4,
         "Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date and/or
         Accounting Standard (AS) 29, "Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and
         Contingent Assets".
44. Whether the company has defaulted in repayment of loans or borrowing
to a financial institution, bank, government or dues to debenture holders? If
yes, the period and the amount of default to be reported (in case of defaults to
banks, financial institutions, and government, lender wise details to be
provided). [Paragraph 3(viii)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)      Under this clause, the auditor is required to report whether the company has
         defaulted in repayment of loans or borrowings9 to a financial institution or bank
         or Government or to dues to debenture holders. If the answer is in the
         affirmative, the auditor is also required to mention the period of default and the
         amount of default, lender wise.
(b)      A question that arises is whether the scope of the auditor's inquiry would cover
         defaults made by the company during the year only or whether the defaults
         committed in previous years and continuing until the year end would also be
         covered. It is clarified that the auditor should report the period and amount of
         all defaults existing at the balance sheet date irrespective of when those
         defaults have occurred.


9
    The term "Borrowings" has been explained in paragraph 19 of this Guidance Note.
                                                           38
(c)       Though the word "default" has not been defined, in this regard, the word
          "default" would mean non-payment of dues to banks, Government, financial
          institutions or debenture holders on the last dates specified in loan documents
          or debentures trust deed, as the case may be.
          For example, in the case of term loans, fixed dates are prescribed for
          repayment in the agreement or terms and conditions of the loans. The dates
          prescribed for repayments would operate as the last date of payments and any
          delay after this fixed date would amount to default and reporting required in
          case of aggregate default on account of repayment of loan.
(d)       Section 2 (39) of the Act defines "financial institution" to include a
          scheduled bank, and any other financial institution defined or notified under
          the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. Text of Section 45-I(c) of RBI Act,
          1934 is given in Appendix III to this Guidance Note .
          In view of the said definition, Financial Institution includes all Banks, Public
          Financial Institutions, as well as Non ­ Banking Institutions and also includes
          Non-Banking Finance Companies.10
(e)       This clause also requires reporting on default in repayment of loans or
          borrowings taken from the Government. The term "Government" means the
          department of the Central Government, a State Government and its department
          and a Union Territory and its department, but shall not include any entity,
          whether created by a statute or otherwise, the accounts of which are not
          required to be kept in accordance with article 150 of the constitution or the rules
          made there under. (As defined u/s 65B (26A) of the Finance Act 1994).
          Accordingly, the term "Government" does not include Government Company/
          Public Sector Undertaking/ Boards/ Authority/ Corporation and Foreign
          Government.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(f)       The auditor should obtain the schedule of repayments to banks, financial
          institutions, government and debenture holders from the management of the
          company. The schedule should indicate the amount and the due dates of the
          payments that the company is required to make to banks, financial institutions,
          government and debenture holders.
(g)       The auditor should examine the agreement or other documents containing the
          terms and conditions of the loans and borrowings of the company taken from
          banks, Government and financial institutions. The auditor should also examine
          the debenture trust deed. This examination would enable the auditor in
          verifying the amount and due dates of the payments mentioned in schedule of
          repayments provided by the management of the company. The auditor should
          then verify whether the repayments as per the books of account are in
          accordance with the terms and conditions of the relevant agreement.
(h)       The auditor should obtain the confirmation of the concerned bank or financial
          institution as to the status of the loan account including the overdue position as
          at the balance sheet date.

10
     Attention of the readers is invited to paragraphs 7 to 21 relating to applicability of the Order.
                                                                 39
(i)   It may happen that the company might have submitted application for
      reschedulement/restructuring proposals to the lenders, which may be in
      different    stages      of    processing.  Submission     of   application    for
      reschedulement/restructuring does not mean that no default has occurred.
      Accordingly, in such situations also the auditor should report the period of
      default and the amount of default. However, if the application for
      reschedulement of loan has been approved by the concerned bank or financial
      institution or if the default has been made good by the company during the year
      covered by the auditor's report, the auditor should state in his audit report the
      fact of reschedulement of loan or the fact of default having been made good.
(j)   It may be noted that for the purposes of reporting of default under this clause
      the term "borrowings" may be construed as the principal amount since it has
      been used in the context of the word "repayment" and the term "dues" would
      mean the principal and the interest,.
(k)   The auditor may come across a situation where there may be disputes between
      the company and the lender on certain issues relating to repayments. In such
      situations, the auditor should consider the prevailing terms and conditions only.
      However, he may give a brief nature of the dispute while reporting under this
      clause.
(l)   Under this clause the auditor is required to give lender wise details in case of
      banks, financial institutions and Government only and not in respect of
      individual debenture holders and may incorporate the following details:-
       Particulars                  Amount of default as Period        of Remarks, if
                                    at the balance sheet default          any.
                                    date
       i) Name of the Lenders:
       In case of:
           Bank
           Financial institution&
           Government
       ii) Debentures
45. Whether moneys raised by way of initial public offer or further public
offer (including debt instruments) and term loans were applied for the
purposes for which those are raised. If not, the details together with delays or
default and subsequent rectification, if any, as may be applicable, be
reported;[Paragraph 3(ix)]

Under this clause the auditor is required to report whether money raised by the
company through Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer (including debt
instruments) and term loans have been utilised for the purposes for which those
were raised.
Relevant Provisions
(a)   In case the company has made an Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer
      (including debt instruments) the auditor is required to report upon the disclosure
      of end-use of the money by the management in the financial statements. The
      auditor is also required to state whether he has verified the disclosure made by
                                              40
      the management in this regard. `Securities' has been defined in Section 2(81)
      of the Act which refers to the definition of `securities' in section 2(h) of the
      Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956. Initial public offer or further public
      offer shall cover issue of equity shares, convertible securities, non-convertible
      debt securities, non-convertible redeemable preference shares, perpetual debt
      instruments, perpetual non-cumulative preference shares, Indian depository
      receipts, and securitized debt instruments.
(b)   Part 1 of Chapter III of the Act consisting of Sections 23 to 41 deals with Public
      Offer. Section 23(1)(a) of the said Act, provides that, "a public company may
      issue securities to public through prospectus which is also referred to as "public
      offer". Explanation to Section 23 states that for the purpose of aforesaid
      Chapter III, the expression, "public offer" includes initial public offer or further
      public offer of securities to public by a company, or an offer for sale of
      securities to the public by an existing shareholder, through issue of prospectus.
      In terms of Section 24 of the said Act, the Securities & Exchange Board of India
      (SEBI) is empowered to regulate issue of securities by making regulations on
      that behalf. Therefore, a company raising moneys by way of Initial Public Offer
      or Further Public Offer shall have to follow the requirements of the applicable
      provisions of the Act, as well as the relevant SEBI Regulations.
(c)   Currently, there is no legal requirement under the Act to disclose the end use of
      money raised by Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer (including debt
      instruments) in the financial statements. The companies, however, make such
      a disclosure in the Board's Report. Schedule III to the Act requires that only
      unutilized amount of any Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer (including
      debt instruments) made by the company should be disclosed in the financial
      statements of a company. In the absence of any legal requirement of such
      disclosure, it appears that the clause envisages that the companies should
      disclose the end use of money raised by the Initial Public Offer or Further
      Public Offer (including debt instruments) in the financial statements by way of
      notes and the auditor should verify the same.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(d)   Normally, the companies do mention the end-use of the money proposed to be
      raised through the Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer (including debt
      instruments) in the offer document. An examination of the offer document
      would provide the auditor an understanding of the proposed end-use of money
      raised from public. The auditor should verify that the amount of end-use of
      money disclosed in the financial statements by the management is not
      materially different from the proposed and actual end use. The auditor should
      obtain a representation from the management as to the completeness of the
      disclosure with regard to the end-use of money raised as well as actual end
      utilization of money raised by Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer
      (including debt instruments). If, for any reason, the auditor is not able to verify
      the end-use of money raised from Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer
      (including debt instruments), he should state that he is not able to comment
      upon the disclosure of end-use of money by the company since he could not
      verify the same. He should also mention the reasons which resulted in the
      auditor's inability to verify the disclosure.

                                               41
(e)   It may be noted that while reporting under this clause, the auditor should also
      have regard to the SEBI (Listing Obligations &Disclosure Requirements)
      Regulations, 2015 (hereinafter referred as "LODR"), which contain a number of
      disclosure requirements in the balance sheet with respect to utilization of
      proceeds of monies raised from public, whether by shares or debentures, as
      also disclosure requirements in respect of unutilized monies from such
      proceeds. From a perusal of the LODR, it would be apparent that the details
      have to be given of both `utilised' and `unutilised' monies. Since the purpose is
      to provide a picture to the reader of `utilisation of issue proceeds', it is only
      logical that the sum total of utilised and unutilised portions equal the total issue
      size. This implies that the figure of `utilised' money should be cumulative.
(f)   It may also be noted that according to the LODR, the issuer company is
      required to make arrangements for the use of proceeds of the issue to be
      monitored by financial institutions. The monitoring agency so appointed is
      required to submit its report to the SEBI, on a half-yearly basis, till the
      completion of the project. In case, the company has appointed a monitoring
      agency for the purpose of the issue, reports of the monitoring agency would
      also be helpful to the auditor while reporting under the clause.
(g)   The expression "debt instrument" is neither defined in the Order not under the
      Act. However, SEBI (Issue and Listing of Debt Securities), Regulations, 2008
      which apply to public issue of debt securities and its listing, define the term
      "debt securities" In terms of Regulation 2(1)(e) of the said regulations, it means
      a non-convertible debt securities which create or acknowledge indebtedness,
      and include debenture, bonds and such other securities of a body corporate or
      any statutory body constituted by virtue of a legislation, whether constituting a
      charge on the assets of the body corporate or not, but excludes bonds issued
      by Government or such other bodies as may be specified by the Board,
      security receipts and securitized debt instruments. Further, in terms of the
      Explanation to Section 23 of the Act, "Public Offer" would include ADRs and
      GDRs.
(h)   In view of the aforesaid, the reporting by an auditor as stated in paragraph(a)
      above should only relate to moneys raised by the company by way of initial
      public offer or further public offer of equity shares, convertible securities
      (defined above) and debt securities (defined above). Since, offer for sale of
      specified securities (i.e. equity shares and convertible securities) to the public
      by any existing holder does not result in any moneys raised in a company, the
      same is outside the purview of the reporting requirement under this clause. It
      seems that strictly in terms of the definitions of public offer, initial public offer
      and further public offer cited above, moneys raised from foreign capital markets
      and by way of issuance of Global Depository Receipts and American
      Depository Receipts may not fall within the scope of reporting under this
      clause.
(i)   This clause also requires the auditor to examine whether term loans were
      applied for the purpose for which these loans were obtained. First of all, the
      auditor should ascertain whether the company has taken any "term loans".
      Term loans normally have a fixed or pre-determined maturity period or a
      repayment schedule. In the banking industry, for example, loans with

                                               42
      repayment period beyond 36 months are usually known as "term loans". Cash
      credit, overdraft and call money accounts/deposits are, therefore, not covered
      by the expression "term loans". Terms loans are generally provided by banks
      and financial institutions for acquisition of capital assets which then become the
      security for the loan, i.e., end use of funds is normally fixed.
(j)   The Order is silent as to whether this clause also covers term loans obtained
      from entities/persons other than banks/financial institutions. A strict
      interpretation of the clause would mean that the term loan obtained from
      entities/persons other than banks/financial institutions would also have to be
      examined by the auditor for the purpose of reporting under the clause.
(k)   The auditor should examine the terms and conditions subject to which the
      company has obtained the term loans. The auditor may also examine the
      proposal for grant of loan made to the bank. As mentioned above, normally,
      the end use of the funds raised by term loans is mentioned in the sanction letter
      or documents containing the terms and conditions of the loan. The auditor
      should ascertain the purpose for which term loans were sanctioned. The
      auditor should also compare the purpose for which term loans were sanctioned
      with the actual utilisation of the loans. The auditor should obtain sufficient
      appropriate audit evidence regarding the utilisation of the amounts raised. If the
      auditor finds that the funds have not been utilized for the purpose for which
      they were obtained, the auditor's report should state the fact.
(l)   It is not necessary to establish a one-to-one relationship with the amount of
      term loan and its utilisation. It is quite often found that the amount of term loan
      disbursed by the bank is deposited in the common account of the company
      from which subsequently the utilisation is made. In such cases, it should not be
      construed that the amount has not been utilised for the purpose it was raised.
(m) It may happen that the company might have acquired improved version/model
    of assets as against the assets for which the loan had been sanctioned. For
    example, if out of a loan sanctioned for purchase of machinery to be used for
    manufacture of shoe upper is instead used to purchase a machine, which apart
    from manufacturing shoe uppers has certain additional manufacturing facilities.
    In such cases, it should not be construed that the loan has not been applied for
    the purpose for which it was raised.
(n)   Normally, the term lenders directly make the payment to the vendors/suppliers.
      In such cases, it becomes easier for the auditor to comment on the application
      of term loans.
(o)   It may so happen that the term loans taken during the year might not have
      been applied for the stated purpose during the year, for example, the loan was
      disbursed at the fag end of the year. In such a case, the auditor should
      mention in his audit report that the term loan obtained during the year has not
      been utilised. This also implies that the auditor, while making inquiry in respect
      of this clause, should also consider the term loans which although were taken
      in the previous accounting period but have been actually utilised during the
      current accounting period.
(p)   In case of term loans, raised against title deeds, long term FDRs, NSCs etc.,

                                              43
      where the lender is not concerned with the purpose for which it is being
      obtained, the auditor should clearly mention the fact that in absence of any
      stipulation regarding the utilization of loans from the lender, he is unable to
      comment as to whether the term loans have been applied for the purposes for
      which they were obtained. In case the specific purpose is not recorded and the
      general purpose/ bone fide business use is stated; in such cases the auditor
      should verify whether the company has invested or utilized the money for
      purposes other than objects of the company.
(q)   During construction phase, companies, may, temporarily invest the surplus
      funds to reduce the cost of capital or for other business reasons. However,
      subsequently the same are utilised for the stated objectives. In such cases, the
      auditor should mention the fact that pending utilisation of the funds raised
      through Initial Public Offer or Further Public Offer (including debt instruments)
      or term loans for the stated purpose, the funds were temporarily used for the
      purpose other than for which they were raised but were ultimately utilised for
      the stated end-use.
(r)   Where the auditor concludes that the initial public offer or the further public
      offer (including debt instruments) or the term loans were not applied for the
      purpose for which the same were raised/obtained, the auditor should mention
      in his report that the amount involved as well as the nature of default including
      delay in utilization. The auditor is also required to report the details of any
      subsequent rectifications made by the company.
(s)   A suggested reporting format under this cause is as follows:
      In our opinion and according to the information and explanations given to us,
      the Company has utilized the money raised by way of initial public offer/ further
      public offer (including debt instruments) and the term loans during the year for
      the purposes for which they were raised, except for:


       Nature of the Details of default Amount (Rs.) Subsequently rectified
       fund raised   (Reason /Delay)                 (Yes/No) and details




46. Whether any fraud by the company or any fraud on the company by its
officers or employees has been noticed or reported during the year; If yes, the
nature and the amount involved is to be indicated. [Paragraph 3(x)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   This clause requires the auditor to report whether any fraud has been noticed
      or reported by the company or any fraud on the company by its officers or
      employees during the year. If yes, the auditor is required to state the amount
      involved and the nature of fraud. The clause does not require the auditor to
      discover such frauds. The scope of auditor's inquiry under this clause is
      restricted to frauds `noticed or reported' during the year. The use of the words
      "noticed or reported" indicates that the management of the company should

                                             44
      have the knowledge about the frauds by the company or on the company by its
      Officer and employees that have occurred during the period covered by the
      auditor's report. It may be noted that this clause of the Order, by requiring the
      auditor to report whether any fraud by the company or on the company by its
      Officer or employees has been noticed or reported, does not relieve the auditor
      from his responsibility to consider fraud and error in an audit of financial
      statements. In other words, irrespective of the auditor's comments under this
      clause, the auditor is also required to comply with the requirements of Standard
      on Auditing (SA) 240, "The Auditor's Responsibility Relating to Fraud in an
      Audit of Financial Statements". In this context, the auditor should also have
      regard to the Guidance Note on Reporting on Fraud under Section 143(12) of
      the Companies Act, 2013, issued by ICAI.
(b)   The term "fraud" refers to an intentional act by one or more individuals among
      management, those charged with governance, employees, involving the use of
      deception to obtain an unjust or illegal advantage. Although fraud is a broad
      legal concept, the auditor is concerned with fraudulent acts that cause a
      material misstatement in the financial statements. Misstatement of the financial
      statements may not be the objective of some frauds. Auditors do not make
      legal determinations of whether fraud has actually occurred. Fraud involving
      one or more members of management or those charged with governance is
      referred to as "management fraud"; fraud involving only employees including
      officers of the entity is referred to as "employee fraud". In either case, there
      may be collusion with third parties outside the entity. In fact, generally
      speaking, the "management fraud" can be construed as "fraud by the
      company".
(c)   Two types of intentional misstatements are relevant to the auditor's
      consideration of fraud - misstatements resulting from fraudulent financial
      reporting and misstatements resulting from misappropriation of assets.
(d)   Fraudulent financial reporting involves intentional misstatements or omissions
      of amounts or disclosures in financial statements to deceive financial statement
      users. Fraudulent financial reporting may involve:
      (i) Deception such as manipulation, falsification, or alteration of accounting
          records or supporting documents from which the financial statements are
          prepared.
      (ii) Misrepresentation in, or intentional omission from, the financial statements
           of events, transactions or other significant information.
      (iii) Intentional misapplication of accounting principles relating to measurement,
            recognition, classification, presentation, or disclosure.
(e)   Misappropriation of assets involves the theft of an entity's assets.
      Misappropriation of assets can be accomplished in a variety of ways (including
      embezzling receipts, stealing physical or intangible assets, or causing an entity
      to pay for goods and services not received); it is often accompanied by false or
      misleading records or documents in order to conceal the fact that the assets
      are missing.
(f)   Fraudulent financial reporting may be committed by the company because
                                              45
      management is under pressure, from sources outside or inside the entity, to
      achieve an expected (and perhaps unrealistic) earnings target particularly when
      the consequences to management of failing to meet financial goals can be
      significant. The auditor must appreciate that a perceived opportunity for
      fraudulent financial reporting or misappropriation of assets may exist when an
      individual believes internal control could be circumvented, for example,
      because the individual is in a position of trust or has knowledge of specific
      weaknesses in the internal control system.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(g)   While planning the audit, the auditor should discuss with other members of the
      audit team, the susceptibility of the company to material misstatements in the
      financial statements resulting from fraud. While planning, the auditor should
      also make inquiries of management to determine whether management is
      aware of any known fraud or suspected fraud that the company is investigating.
(h)   The auditor should examine the reports of the internal auditor with a view to
      ascertain whether any fraud has been reported or noticed by the management.
      The auditor should examine the minutes of the audit committee, if available, to
      ascertain whether any instance of fraud pertaining to the company has been
      reported and actions taken thereon.
      The auditor should enquire from the management about any frauds on the
      company that it has noticed or that have been reported to it. The auditor should
      also discuss the matter with other employees including officers of the company.
      The auditor should also examine the minute book of the board meeting of the
      company in this regard.
(i)   The auditor should obtain written representations from management that:
      (i)     it acknowledges its responsibility for the implementation and operation of
              accounting and internal control systems that are designed to prevent and
              detect fraud and error;
      (ii)    it believes the effects of those uncorrected misstatements in financial
              statements, aggregated by the auditor during the audit are immaterial,
              both individually and in the aggregate, to the financial statements taken as
              a whole. A summary of such items should be included in or attached to
              the written representation;
      (iii)   it has
              a)       disclosed to the auditor all significant facts relating to any frauds or
                       suspected frauds known to management that may have affected the
                       entity; and
              b)       it has disclosed to the auditor the results of its assessment of the
                       risk that the financial statements may be materially misstated as a
                       result of fraud.
(j)   Because management is responsible for adjusting the financial statements to
      correct material misstatements, it is important that the auditor obtains written
      representation from management that any uncorrected misstatements resulting

                                                    46
      from fraud are, in management's opinion, immaterial, both individually and in
      the aggregate. Such representations are not a substitute for obtaining
      sufficient appropriate audit evidence. In some circumstances, management
      may not believe that certain of the uncorrected financial statement
      misstatements aggregated by the auditor during the audit are misstatements.
      For that reason, management may want to add to their written representation
      words such as, "We do not agree that items constitute misstatements because
      [description of reasons]."
      The auditor should consider if any fraud has been reported by them during the
      year under section 143(12) of the Act and if so whether that same would be
      reported under this Clause. It may be mentioned here that section 143(12) of
      the Act requires the auditor has reasons to believe that a fraud is being
      committed or has been committed by an employee or officer. In such a case
      the auditor needs to report to the Central Government or the Audit Committee.
      However, this Clause will include only the reported frauds and not suspected
      fraud.
(k)   Where the auditor notices that any fraud by the company or on the company by
      its officers or employees has been noticed by or reported during the year, the
      auditor should, apart from reporting the existence of fraud, also required to
      report, the nature of fraud and amount involved. For reporting under this
      clause, the auditor may consider the following:
      (i)     This clause requires all frauds noticed or reported during the year shall be
              reported indicating the nature and amount involved. As specified the fraud
              by the company or on the company by its officers or employees are only
              covered.
      (ii)    Of the frauds covered under section 143(12) of the Act, only noticed
              frauds shall be included here and not the suspected frauds.
      (iii)   While reporting under this clause with regard to the nature and the
              amount involved of the frauds noticed or reported, the auditor may also
              consider the principles of materiality outlined in Standards on Auditing.

47. Whether Managerial remuneration has been paid or provided in
accordance with the requisite approvals mandated by the provisions of
section 197 read with schedule V to the Companies Act? If not, state the
amount involved and steps taken by the Company for securing refund of the
same [Paragraph 3(xi)]

Relevant Provisions

(a)   This clause requires the auditor to examine the compliance of Section 197 read
      with Schedule V of the Act, in respect of managerial remuneration paid or
      provided by the company and if not, then to report the amount involved along
      with the steps taken to secure refund of such amount. The text of section 197,
      the relevant extract of the Rules 4 & 5 of the Companies (Appointment &
      Remuneration of Managerial Personnel) Rules 2014 and Schedule V is
      reproduced in Appendix VII to this Guidance Note.

                                                47
Audit Procedures and Reporting

(b)   Section 197 of the Act prescribes that the maximum ceiling for payment of
      managerial remuneration by a public company to its directors, including
      managing director and whole-time director and its manager which shall not
      exceed 11% of the net profit of the company in that financial year, computed in
      accordance with section 198 of the Act, except that the remuneration of the
      directors shall not be deducted from the gross profits.

(c)   It may be noted that section 197 applies only to a public company. The term
      "public company" has been defined under section 2(77) of the Act. Thereby,
      section 197 of the Act is not applicable to a Private Company, and, accordingly,
      reporting under this clause would not be required.

(d)   The term "Remuneration" under section 2(78) is defined to mean any money or
      its equivalent given or passed to any person for services rendered by him and
      includes perquisites as defined under the Income Tax Act, 1961. It may be
      noted that for the purposes of the Act, the term remuneration would include
      salaries, perquisites and commission on profits but would not include:

      (i)    Sitting fees paid to directors in accordance with the provisions of the Act
             (sub-sections 2 and 5 of Section 197).

      (ii)   Remuneration payable to directors for services rendered by him of a
             professional nature (sub-section 4 of Section 197).

(e)   The auditor's duty is to determine whether requisite approval mandated by the
      provisions of Section 197 read with Schedule V to the Act has been complied
      with:-

      (i)    The overall managerial       remuneration    and   requisite   approval   is
             summarized as under:-

       S. No    Person entitled for Maximum              If        remuneration
                remuneration        Remuneration      in exceeds      maximum
                                    any financial year   remuneration in any
                                                         financial   year    as
                                                         provided under column
                                                         (b)
       1.       Directors including    11% of the net Company in general
                managing director,     profits*    of the meeting with approval of
                whole time director    company for that Central       Government
                and managers of        financial year     subject to provisions of
                public company (for                       Schedule V may pay
                all such directors                        remuneration in excess
                together)                                 of 11% of the net profits
                                                          of the company
       2        One       managing 5% of            the   net With the approval of the
                Director/   Whole profits*          of    the company    in   general
                                               48
                  time        director/ company for        that meeting this limit may be
                  manager               financial year          exceeded
       3          More than one          10% of the net With the approval of the
                  managing Director/     profits*    of the company   in     general
                  Whole           time   company for that meeting this limit may be
                  director/ manager      financial year     exceeded
                  (for     all    such
                  directors together)
       4          Directors who are      1% of the net            With the approval of the
                  neither managing       profits*    of     the   company     in     general
                  director nor whole     company, (if there is    meeting this limit may be
                  time directors         a     Managing      or   exceeded
                                         whole time director
                                         or Manager) for that
                                         financial year. In any
                                         other case 3% of net
                                         profits.
              *Net profits as computed in the manner referred to in section 198.
              The above percentage will be exclusive of any fees (sitting fees) payable o
              the directors under Section 197(5) of the Act.
      (ii)    Where remuneration (other than sitting fees) is paid in case company has
              no profits or inadequate profits, the same should be in accordance with
              the limits prescribed in section II of Part II of Schedule V to the Act by
              passing a resolution as prescribed and when there is no default in
              repayment of any of its debts (including public deposits) or debentures or
              interest thereon for a continuous period of thirty days in the preceding
              financial year before the appointment of such managerial personnel. The
              limit as prescribed shall be doubled if the resolution passed by the
              shareholder is a special resolution and passed in the manner prescribed
              complying with conditions specified in Schedule V itself. The auditor
              needs to examine the conditions prescribed including required disclosures
              in the financial statements and compliance of such provisions.
      (iii)   If the company pays remuneration to a managerial person in excess of
              the amounts in section II of Part II of schedule V, the approval from
              Central Government is also required in the manner prescribed in section
              III.
(f)   If the managerial remuneration has been paid or provided which is not in
      accordance with the requisite approval mandated by the provisions of section
      197 read with Schedule V to the Act, the clause requires that the auditor should
      disclose the "amount involved" and report the steps taken by the company to
      secure refund of the same. Since the Order does not clarify what constitutes
      "amounts involved", the same may be construed as meaning such amount of
      remuneration that has been paid or provided in excess of the limits prescribed
      under section 197 read with Schedule V of the Act. For this purpose, any


                                                 49
      amount that may have recovered or partially recovered by the company during
      the year would not be reduced from the "amount involved".
(g)   Section 197(10)of the Act provides that without the permission of Central
      Government, the company shall not waive recovery of the excess amount paid
      over and above the prescribed limit. The auditor must examine the
      arrangement or agreements entered by the company in respect of securing
      refund of excess amount paid and should ask the management to give in
      writing, the steps which have been taken in this regard. The auditor should
      obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to support the fact that steps have
      been taken by the company for securing refund of the same.
(h)   The default may be reported incorporating the following details:-
      (i)     Payment made to Director/ Whole time Director / Managing Director /
              Manager.
      (ii)    Amount paid/ provided in excess of the limits prescribed
      (iii)   Amount due for recovery as at Balance Sheet date
      (iv)    Steps taken to secure the recovery of the amount
      (v)     Remarks, if any.

48.   Whether the Nidhi Company has complied with the Net Owned Funds to
Deposits in the ratio of 1:20 to meet out the liability and whether the Nidhi
Company is maintaining ten per cent unencumbered term deposits as
specified in the Nidhi Rules, 2014 to meet out the liability; [Paragraph 3(xii)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   This clause requires the auditor to report whether, in the case of a Nidhi
      Company, net-owned funds to deposit liability ratio is more than 1:20 and the
      Nidhi Company is maintaining ten per cent unencumbered term deposit as
      specified in the Nidhi Rules 2014 to meet out the liability.
(b)   Section 406 (1) of the Act defines "Nidhi" to mean a company which has been
      incorporated as a Nidhi with the object of cultivating the habit of thrift and
      savings amongst its members, receiving deposits from, and lending to, its
      members only, for their mutual benefit, and which complies with such rules as
      are prescribed by the Central Government for regulation of such class of
      companies.
(c)   It may be noted that Ministry of Corporate Affairs on 31st March 2014, vide its
      Notification No. GSR 258(E) notified the `Nidhi Rules 2014', which came into
      force on the first day of April 2014. The said Rules are reproduced in the
      Appendix VIII to this Guidance Note. These Rules apply to Nidhi company
      incorporated as a Nidhi pursuant to the provisions of Section 406 of the Act and
      also to the Nidhi companies declared under sub-section (1) of section 620A of
      the companies act 1956.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(d)   It may be noted that as per Rule 5 (1) prescribed the requirements for minimum
      number of members, net owned fund etc. As per Rule 5 (1) every Nidhi shall,

                                              50
      within a period of one year from the commencement of these rules, ensure that
      it has--
      (i)     not less than two hundred members;
      (ii)    net owned funds of ten lakh rupees or more;
      (iii)   unencumbered term deposits of not less than ten per cent of the
              outstanding deposits as specified in Rule 14; and
      (iv) ratio of net owned funds to deposits of not more than 1:20.
      The auditor should note that as such a Nidhi Company can accept deposits not
      exceeding twenty times of its net owned funds as per last audited balance
      sheet. Furthermore as per Rule 14, every Nidhi is to invest and continue to
      keep invested, in encumbered term deposits with a Scheduled commercial
      bank (other than a co-operative bank or a regional rural bank), or post office
      deposits in its own name an amount which shall not be less than ten per cent of
      the deposits outstanding at the close of business on the last working day of the
      second preceding month, which needs to be examined.
(e)   As per Rule 3(d) Net owned funds were defined as the aggregate of paid up
      equity share capital and free reserves as reduced by accumulated losses and
      intangible assets appearing in the last audited balance sheet:
      Provided that, the amount representing the proceeds of issue of preference
      shares, shall not be included for calculating Net Owned Funds.
(f)   A Nidhi company can accept fixed deposits, recurring deposits accounts and
      savings deposits from its members in accordance with the directions notified by
      the Central Government. The aggregate of such deposits is referred to as
      "deposit liability".
(g)   The auditor should ask the management to provide the computation of the
      deposit liability and net-owned funds on the basis of the requirements
      contained herein above. This would enable him to verify that the ratio of deposit
      liability to net owned funds is in accordance with the requirements prescribed in
      this regard. The auditor should verify the ratio using the figures of net owned
      funds and deposit liability computed in accordance with what is stated above.
      The comments of the auditor should be based upon such a statement provided
      by the management and verification of the same by the auditor.
(h)   The auditor may report, incorporating the following as at the balance sheet
      date:-
      (i)     In case of shortfall in the ratio of net owned funds to the deposits, report
              the amount of shortfall and state the actual ratio of net owned funds to the
              deposits.
      (ii)    In case of shortfall with regard to the minimum amount of 10% as
              unencumbered term deposits, as specified in Nidhi Rules 2014, report the
              amount thereof.



                                                51
49. Whether all transactions with the related parties are in compliance with
section 177 and 188 of Companies Act, 2013 where applicable and the details
have been disclosed in the Financial Statements etc., as required by the
applicable accounting standards; [Paragraph 3(xiii)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   The duty of the auditor, under this clause is to report:
      (i)     Whether all transactions with the related parties are in compliance with
              section 177 and 188 of the Companies Act, 2013 ("Act")
      (ii)    Whether related party disclosures as required by relevant Accounting
              Standards (AS 18, as may be applicable) are disclosed in the financial
              statements
(b)   Section 188 of the Act is applicable to all classes of companies (including
      private companies). The Act envisages the approval of Board of Directors
      and/or the approval of the shareholders (by way of resolution passed in the
      general meeting of the company), as the case may be, in accordance with the
      provisions of section 188. However:-
      (i)     approval of shareholders by way of resolution is not required for
              transactions entered into between a holding company and its wholly
              owned subsidiary whose accounts are consolidated with such holding
              company and placed before the shareholders at the general meeting for
              approval.
      (ii)    approval of the Board of Directors and shareholders is not required in
              respect of related party transactions entered into by the company in its
              ordinary course of business and on an arm's length basis.
(c)   The Related Party, with reference to a company is defined in section 2(76) of
      the Act. The transactions which are covered by section 188 are:
      (i)     sale, purchase or supply of any goods or materials;
      (ii)    selling or otherwise disposing of, or buying, property of any kind;
      (iii)   leasing of property of any kind;
      (iv)    availing or rendering of any services;
      (v)     appointment of any agent for purchase or sale of goods, materials,
              services or property;
      (vi)    related party's appointment to any office or place of profit in the company,
              its subsidiary company or associate company; and
      (vii) Underwriting the subscription of any securities or derivatives thereof, of
            the company.
(d)   Explanation (b) to Section 188(1) defines `arm's length transaction' to mean a
      transaction between two related parties that is conducted as if they were
      unrelated, so that there is no conflict of interest. Standard on Auditing (SA) 550,
      Related Parties defines arm's length transaction as "a transaction conducted on

                                                 52
      such terms and conditions as between a willing buyer and a willing seller who
      are unrelated and are acting independently of each other and pursuing their
      own best interest." The decision as to whether a transaction is at an arm's
      length or not would need considering several factors such as benefits/
      consideration for each of the parties to enter into the agreement, the prevalent
      market/industry practice, economic circumstances, the specific contractual
      understanding and / or terms between the parties, similar contracts executed
      between other unrelated parties, etc. For the purpose of this Clause the auditor
      may test the transaction of arm's length basis based on the transfer pricing
      mechanism in use for the purposes of Income Tax Act, 1961.
(e)   The phrase `ordinary course of business' is not defined under the Act. It seems
      that the ordinary course of business will cover the usual transactions, customs
      and practices of a business and of a Company. In many cases, it may be
      obvious that a transaction is in the `ordinary course of business.' For example,
      a car manufacturing company sells a car to its group company. The price
      charged for the sale is the same as what it charges to other corporate
      customers who are unrelated parties. In this case, one may be able to
      conclude, without much difficulty, that the transaction has been entered into by
      the company in its ordinary course of business. Similarly, in certain extreme
      cases, it may be clear that the transaction is highly unusual and/ or
      extraordinary from the perspective of the company as well as its line of
      business. Hence, it may not be construed as being in the `ordinary course of
      business. Standard on Auditing (SA) 550 Related Parties (Paragraph A25) has
      listed certain examples of transactions outside the entity's normal course of
      business:
      (i)     Complex equity transactions, such as corporate restructurings or
              acquisitions
      (ii)    Transactions with offshore entities in jurisdictions with weak corporate
              laws
      (iii)   The leasing of premises or the rendering of management services by the
              entity to another party if no consideration is exchanged
      (iv)    Sales transactions with unusually large discounts or returns
      (v)     Transactions with circular arrangements, for example, sales with a
              commitment to repurchase
      (vi)    Transactions under contracts whose terms are changed before expiry.
(f)   The above examples are just illustrative and are not conclusive for the
      purposes of analysis under the Act. However, it provides some indicators
      based on which one may consider following aspects while performing
      evaluation of `ordinary course of business':
      (i)     Whether the transaction is covered in the objects of the company as
              envisaged in the Memorandum of Association;
      (ii)    Whether a transaction is usual or unusual, both from the company and its
              line of business perspective;


                                                53
      (iii)   Frequency: If a transaction is happening quite frequently over a period of
              time, it is more likely to be treated as an ordinary course of business.
              However, the inverse does not necessarily hold true;
      (iv)    Whether transaction is taking place at arm's length;
      (v)     Business purpose of the transaction;
      (vi)    Whether transaction is done on similar basis with other third parties; and
      (vii) Size and volume of transaction.
      The assessment of whether a transaction is in the ordinary course of business
      is likely to be very subjective, judgmental and will vary on case-to-case basis.
      The factors mentioned above may help in making this assessment.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(g)   The auditor should obtain written representations from management and,
      where appropriate, those charged with governance that:
      (i)     They have disclosed to the auditor the identity of the entity's related
              parties and all the related party relationships and transactions of which
              they are aware; and
      (ii)    They have appropriately accounted for and disclosed such relationships
              and transactions in accordance with the requirements of the framework.
(h)   Circumstances in which it may be appropriate to obtain written representations
      from those charged with governance include:
      (i)     When they have approved specific related party transactions that
              a)    materially affect the financial statements, or
              b)    involve management.
      (ii)    When they have made specific oral representations to the auditor on
              details of certain related party transactions.
      (iii)   When they have financial or other interests in the related parties or the
              related party transactions.
      (iv)    Management's assertion of responsibility that related party transactions
              were conducted on terms equivalent to those prevailing in an arm's length
              transaction.

(i)   The auditor may also decide to obtain written representations regarding specific
      assertions that management may have made, such as a representation that
      specific related party transactions do not involve undisclosed side agreements.
(j)   The auditor should obtain a list of companies, firms or other parties, the
      particulars of which are required to be entered in the register maintained under
      section 189 of the Act. The auditor should verify the entries made in the register
      maintained under section 189 of the Act from the declarations made by the
      directors in Form MBP-1 i.e., general notice received from a director under
      Rule 9(1) of The Companies (Meetings of Board and Power) Rules, 2014. The
      auditor should also obtain a written representation from the management
      concerning the completeness of the information so provided to the auditor. The
                                                54
      auditor should review the information provided by the management. The auditor
      should also perform the following procedures in respect of the completeness of
      this information:
      (i)    review his working papers for the prior years, if any, for names of known
             companies, firms or other parties the particulars of which are required to
             be entered in the register maintained under section 189 of the Act; and
      (ii)   review the entity's procedures for identification of companies, firms or
             other parties the particulars of which are required to be entered in the
             register maintained under section 189 of the Act.
(k)   A difficulty in judging the arm's length of prices may also arise in cases where
      transactions are entered with sole suppliers. In such cases, the auditor may
      examine the prices paid with reference to list prices of the supplier concerned,
      other trade terms of the supplier, etc. It may be noted that the Company while
      determining whether the transactions entered into by it in its ordinary course of
      business with its related parties are on an arm's length basis must have
      documentary proof of same while entering into the transaction.
(l)   Section 177(4)(iv) of the Act requires that audit committee (of every listed
      companies and other classes of companies which is required to constitute audit
      committee) to approve transactions of the company with related parties.
(m) The auditor is required to perform appropriate procedures to satisfy himself as
    regards compliance with section 177 and 188 so that auditor is able to
    appropriately report under this clause. Auditor can refer SA 550 Related Parties
    which has prescribed auditor's responsibilities regarding related party
    relationships and transactions when performing an audit of financial
    statements, including guidance on the procedures to be performed by auditors.
    The key aspects of SA 550 which would be relevant for reporting on this clause
    are:
      (i)   Identified significant related party transactions outside the entity's normal
            course of business, detailed guidance is available in paragraph A38 to
            A41 of SA 550.
      (ii) Assertions that related party transactions were conducted on terms
            equivalent to those prevailing in an arm's length transaction, detailed
            guidance is available in paragraph A42 to A45 of SA 550.
      (iii) Evaluation of the accounting for and disclosure of identified related party
            relationships and transactions, detailed guidance is available in paragraph
            A46 to A47 of SA 550.
(n)   A smaller entity may not have the same controls provided by different levels of
      authority and approval that may exist in a larger entity. Accordingly, when
      auditing a smaller entity, the auditor may rely to a lesser degree on
      authorization and approval for audit evidence regarding the validity of
      significant related party transactions outside the entity's normal course of
      business. Instead, the auditor may consider performing other audit procedures
      such as inspecting relevant documents, confirming specific aspects of the
      transactions with relevant parties, or observing the owner-manager's
      involvement with the transactions.

                                              55
(o)   Based on the procedures performed by the auditor, if auditor comes across any
      non-compliance, then, it should be duly reported. The following particulars may
      be incorporated:
      Nature of the related party Amount involved Remarks (details of non-
      relationship and the underlying (Rs.)       compliance   may      be
      transaction                                 given)




50. Whether the company has made any preferential allotment or private
placement of shares or fully or partly convertible debentures during the year
under review and if so, as to whether the requirement of Section 42 of the
Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with and the amount raised have
been used for the purposes for which the funds were raised. If not, provide the
details in respect of the amount involved and nature of non-compliance;
[Paragraph 3(xiv)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   This clause requires that in case of private placement of shares or fully or partly
      convertible debentures, during the year under review, whether the
      requirements of section 42 of the Act and the Rules framed thereunder have
      been complied with. Further this clause also requires the auditor to report upon
      the utilization of the said funds for the purposes for which it has been raised, if
      not, the reporting is required giving details of the amount involved and nature of
      non-compliance.
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(b)   (i)    The term `Private Placement' has been defined under the Explanation (ii)
             to section42(2) to mean any offer of securities or invitation to subscribe
             securities to a select group of persons by a company (other than by way
             of public offer) through issue of a private placement offer letter and which
             satisfies the conditions specified in section 42 of the Act. In addition, the
             provisions of Rule 14 of the Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of
             Securities) Rules, 2014 also need to be complied with while reporting
             under this clause.
             The text of Section 42 of the Act and Rule 14 of the Companies
             (Prospectus & Allotment of Securities) Rules, 2014 are reproduced in
             Appendix IX and Appendix X to this Guidance Note.
      (ii)   It may be noted that the term "preferential allotment" is not defined under
             the Act. Further this clause specifically relates to the compliance under
             section 42 of the Act only with respect to equity shares, preference share
             and fully or partly convertible debenture issued. The auditor needs to
             examine the compliance of the requirements of section 42 of the Act
             which deals with the private placement.
(c)   Section 42 of the Act requires, inter alia, as under:


                                                56
(i)    Such private placement offer of securities or invitation to subscribe
       securities should be made to a select group of persons by a company
       (other than by way of public offer) through issue of a private placement
       offer letter.
       The offer of securities or invitation to subscribe securities shall be made to
       such number of persons not exceeding two hundred, [excluding qualified
       institutional buyers and employees of the company being offered
       securities under a scheme of employees stock option as per provisions of
       clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 62], in a financial year and on such
       conditions (including the form and manner of private placement) as may
       be prescribed.
       Qualified institutional buyer means as defined in the Securities and
       Exchange Board of India (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements)
       Regulations, 2009. Section 42 provides maximum number of persons 50
       or higher number which is prescribed by rule 14 of the Companies
       (Prospectus & allotment of securities) Rules, 2014 as 200 persons.
(ii)  If a company, listed or unlisted, makes an offer to allot or invites
      subscription, or allots, or enters into an agreement to allot, securities to
      more than the prescribed number of persons, whether the payment for the
      securities has been received or not or whether the company intends to list
      its securities or not on any recognised stock exchange in or outside India,
      the same shall be deemed to be an offer to the public and shall
      accordingly be governed by the provisions of Public offer.
(iii) No fresh offer or invitation of private placement shall be made unless the
      allotments with respect to any offer or invitation made earlier have been
      completed or that offer or invitation has been withdrawn or abandoned by
      the company.
(iv) Any offer or invitation not in compliance with the provisions of section 42
      of the Act shall be treated as a public offer and respective provisions of
      the Act, the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 and the Securities
      and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 shall be required to be complied
      with.
(v) All monies payable towards subscription of securities under section 42 of
      the Act shall be paid through cheque or demand draft or other banking
      channels but not by cash.
(vi) A company making an offer or invitation on private placement shall allot
      its securities within sixty days from the date of receipt of the application
      money for such securities and if the company is not able to allot the
      securities within that period, it shall repay the application money to the
      subscribers within fifteen days from the date of completion of sixty days
      and if the company fails to repay the application money within the
      aforesaid period, it shall be liable to repay that money with interest at the
      rate of twelve percent per annum from the expiry of the sixtieth day.
(vii) Also monies received on application under private placement shall be
      kept in a separate bank account in a scheduled bank and shall not be
      utilised for any purpose other than (a) for adjustment against allotment of


                                          57
                securities; or (b) for the repayment of monies where the company is
                unable to allot securities.
         (viii) All offers covered under section 42 of the Act shall be made only to such
                persons whose names are recorded by the company prior to the invitation
                to subscribe, and that such persons shall receive the offer by name, and
                that a complete record of such offers shall be kept by the company in
                such manner as may be prescribed and complete information about such
                offer shall be filed with the Registrar within a period of thirty days of
                circulation of relevant private placement offer letter.
         (ix) No company offering securities under section 42 of the Act shall release
                any public advertisements or utilise any media, marketing or distribution
                channels or agents to inform the public at large about such an offer.
         (x) The company making any allotment of securities under section 42 of the
                Act shall file with the Registrar a return of allotment in such manner as
                may be prescribed, including the complete list of all security-holders, with
                their full names, addresses, number of securities allotted and such other
                relevant information as may be prescribed.
         (xi) If a company makes an offer or accepts monies in contravention of
                section 42 of the Act and an order imposing the penalty for such
                contravention is passed, then the company shall also refund all monies to
                subscribers within a period of thirty days of the order imposing the
                penalty.
(d)      In case the requirements of section 42 of the Act and rules framed in this
         regard are not complied with, the auditor should report incorporating following
         details:
           Nature of securities viz. Equity share Amount                   Nature   of   non-
           / Preference shares / Convertible Involved                      compliance
           debenture




(e)      This clause also requires the auditor to examine whether funds so raised
         from private placement of shares or fully or partly convertible debentures
         were applied for the purpose for which these securities were issued. The
         examination of auditor may cover following aspects:
         (i)    Paragraph 2(i) of the Form PAS-4, Private Placement Offer Letter11,
                requires the company to provide particulars in respect of the purposes
                and objects of the offer. Accordingly, the auditor should compare such
                information provided by the Company in Form PAS-4 with the actual
                utilization of the monies as per the books of account of the Company.
         (ii)   It is not necessary to establish a one-to-one relationship with the amount
                of fund raised and its utilisation. It is quite often found that the amount of
                fund raised is not deposited in a separate bank account of the company
                from which subsequent utilisation is made. In such cases, it should not be
                construed that the amount has not been utilised for the purpose for which
11
     Prescribed in the Companies (Prospectus of Securities) Rules, 2014.
                                                            58
              it was raised.
      (iii)   During construction phase, companies, may, temporarily invest the
              surplus funds prudently. However, subsequently the same are utilised for
              the stated objectives. In such cases, the auditor should mention the fact
              that pending utilisation of the fund raised for the stated purpose, the funds
              were temporarily used for the purpose other than for which the funds was
              raised.
      (iv)    However if the funds were ultimately utilised for the stated end-use, the
              reporting for the same may be made as and when the same have been
              utilized.
      (v)     It may so happen that the funds raised during the year might not have
              been applied for the stated purpose during the year, for example, the
              funds were raised at the fag-end of the year. In such a case, the auditor
              should mention in his audit report that the funds raised during the year
              has not been utilised. This also implies that the auditor, while making
              inquiry in respect of this clause, should also consider that the funds
              raised, which were raised in the previous accounting period but have
              been actually utilised during the current accounting period.
      (vi)    In case the specific purpose in not recorded and the general purpose /
              bona-fide business use etc are stated then in such cases, auditor should
              verify that the company has invested or utilized the money for general
              purpose / bona-fide business use of the company.
(f)   The auditor may report the non-compliances incorporating the following details:
        Nature        of    Purpose     Total          Amount         Un-         Remarks,
        Securities          for which   Amount         utilized for   utilized    if any
        viz.Equity share    funds       Raised         the other      balance
        /Preference         raised      /opening       purpose        as       at
        shares                          unutilized                    Balance
        /Convertible                    balance                       sheet
        debenture                                                     date




51. Whether the company has entered into any non-cash transactions with
directors or persons connected with him and if so, whether the provisions of
section 192 of Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with. [Paragraph
3(xv)]
Relevant Provisions
(a)   Section 192 of the Act deals with restriction on non-cash transactions involving
      directors or persons connected with them. The section prohibits the company
      from entering into following types of arrangements unless it meets the
      conditions laid out in the said section:
      (i)     An arrangement by which a director of the company or its holding,
              subsidiary or associate company or a person connected with such director


                                                 59
             acquires or is to acquire assets for consideration other than cash, from
             the company.
      (ii)   An arrangement by which the company acquires or is to acquire assets
             for consideration other than cash, from such director or person so
             connected.
(b)   Arrangements, as discussed herein above, can only be entered by the
      company on fulfillment of the conditions laid out in Section 192 of the Act which
      are as under:
      (i)    The company should have obtained prior approval for such arrangement
             through a resolution of the company in general meeting.
      (ii)   In case the concerned director or the person connected therewith, is also
             a director of its holding company, a similar approval should have been
             obtained by the holding company through a resolution at its general
             meeting.
(c)   The reporting requirements under this clause are in two parts. The first part
      requires the auditor to report on whether the company has entered into any
      non-cash transactions with the directors or any persons connected with such
      director/s. The second part of the clause requires the auditor to report whether
      the provisions of section 192 of the Act have been complied with. Therefore,
      the second part of the clause becomes reportable only if the answer to the first
      part is in affirmative.
(d)   In other words, such transactions involving change in the assets or liabilities of
      a company but not involving "cash" or cash equivalents" as defined under
      Accounting Standard (AS) 3, "Cash Flow Statement" may be construed as
      non-cash transactions. At this point, it may be appropriate to also refer to the
      definition and discussion on "non-cash transactions" &"cash and cash
      equivalents", as given in AS 3.
(e)   There may be a situation where the acquisition of the asset takes place in one
      year and the corresponding liability is created in the financial statements, the
      corresponding settlement in the following year. The said transaction will not be
      considered as non-cash transaction. Further, mergers under Court schemes
      would be entered into subject to requisite approvals of Court etc., would not be
      considered non-cash transactions.
(f)   The term "person connected with the director" has not been defined in the Act,
      or the Rules thereunder. Instead, the term "to any other person in whom the
      director is interested" is defined in the Explanation to sub section (1) of section
      185 of the Act, which is reproduced as under and may be used as the
      reference point for reporting under this clause.
      "(a) any director of the lending company, or of a company which is its holding
           company or any partner or relative of any such director;
      (b)    any firm in which any such director or relative is a partner;
      (c)    any private company of which any such director is a director or member;


                                                60
       (d)      anybody corporate at a general meeting of which not less than twenty-
                five per cent. of the total voting power may be exercised or controlled by
                any such director, or by two or more such directors, together; or
       (e)      anybody corporate, the Board of directors, managing director or
                manager, whereof is accustomed to act in accordance with the directions
                or instructions of the Board, or of any director or directors, of the lending
                company."
(g)   Section 2(77) of the Companies Act, 2013 read with Rule 4 of the Companies
      (Specification of Definition Details) Rules, 2014 defines the term "relative". As
      per the aforesaid section 2(77),
      "Relative, with reference to any person, means anyone who is related to
      another, if ­
               (i)     they are members of a Hindu Undivided Family;
               (ii)    they are husband and wife; or
               (iii)   one person is related to the other in such manner as may be
                       prescribed"
      As per Rule 4 of the Companies (Specification of Definition Details) Rules,
      2014, a person shall be deemed to be the relative of another, if he or she is
      related to another in the following manner, namely ­
       (i)      Father, including step father
       (ii)     Mother, including step mother
       (iii)    Son, including step son
       (iv)     Son's wife
       (v)      Daughter
       (vi)     Daughter's husband
       (vii) Brother, including step brother
       (viii) Sister, including step sister
(h)    The term "acquire" simply means to come into possession of something. A
       thing that cannot be sold cannot be acquired12. Thus, an acquisition would
       necessarily involve existence of two parties and a transfer of rights and/or
       obligations in a thing. In the context of section 192 of the Act, this transfer is
       between the company and the director and/or a person connected with a
       director. Such "director" is not restricted to being a director of the concerned
       company, but extends to director of a holding company, subsidiary or
       associate of the company under question.
(i)    As provided in section 192, the acquisition by/from the company has to be that
       of an "asset". Further, the term assets should be construed to have the same

12
  Acquire. (n.d.) A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John
Bouvier(1856). Retrieved March 26 2016 from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/acquire
                                                     61
      meaning as described in the Framework for Preparation and Presentation of
      Financial Statements, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of
      India. The auditor would need to evaluate whether the subject matter of
      acquisition by/ from the company satisfies the characteristic of an "asset".


Audit Procedures and Reporting
(j)   For reporting on the first leg of the reporting clause, the starting point of the
      auditor's procedures could be obtaining a management representation as to
      whether the company has undertaken any non-cash transactions with the
      directors or persons connected with the directors, as envisaged in section
      192(1) of the Act. The auditor would need to corroborate the management
      representation with sufficient appropriate audit evidence. A scrutiny of the
      following books of account, records and documents could provide source of
      such audit evidence to the auditor as to the existence of such non cash
      transactions as well as persons connected with the Directors:
        Persons connected with Director           Acquisition by/ From Company
      Form No. MBP 1, Notice of Interest     Form No. MBP 2, Register of Loans,
      by Director, filed pursuant to the     Guarantee, Security and Acquisition
      Companies (Meetings of Board and       Made by the Company, filed pursuant to
      Its Powers) Rules, 2014                the Companies (Meetings of Board and
                                             Its Powers) Rules, 2014
      [Ref: Sec 184(1) and Rule 9(1)]
                                             [Ref: Sec 186(9) and Rule 12(1)]
                                             Form No. MBP 4, Register of Contracts
                                             with Related Party and Contracts and
                                             Bodies etc in which Directors are
                                             Interested, filed pursuant to the
                                             Companies (Meetings of Board and Its
                                             Powers) Rules, 2014
                                             [Ref: Sec 189(1) and Rule 16(1)]
                                             Movements in the Fixed Asset Register
                                             Minutes book of the General Meeting
                                             and Meetings of Directors
                                             Report on Annual General Meeting
                                             pursuant to Companies (Management
                                             and Administration) Rules, 2014
                                             {Ref Sec 121(1) and Rule 31(2)}
(k)   The above documents and records would provide evidence of any such non
      cash transactions that have actually taken place. The language of section
      192(1) also uses the term "is to acquire" in the context of such transactions,
      indicating the existence of intention to acquire. The management may be
      requested to provide details of its intention to enter into transactions covered
      under section 192, after the date of the financial statements under audit. The

                                             62
      minutes of the meetings of the Board of Directors and the Audit Committee
      may provide evidence of such intention. Besides, a scrutiny of the information
      for subsequent period as contained in the aforesaid records and documents
      may provide corroborative audit evidence of such intention having existed as at
      the date of the auditor's report.

(l)   Where the company has entered into/ is to enter into any non-cash
      transactions as discussed above, the auditor would make a report to that effect
      under this clause. The second leg of the clause requires the auditor to report
      whether the Company has complied with the provisions of section 192 in this
      regard. Section 192(1) and (2) envisage the following compliances in respect
      of such transactions:

      (i)     The company should have obtained a prior approval for such
              arrangement by a resolution in the General Meeting

      (ii)    If the concerned Director or connected person is a director of the
              company's holding company, the latter too should have obtained a similar
              prior approval for the arrangement by a resolution at its General Meeting

      (iii)   Notice for approval of the resolution should contain details of the
              arrangement along with the value of assets involved duly calculated by a
              registered valuer.

      The auditors should check compliance with Section 192(2) and verify the notice
      of the General Meeting that it includes particulars of arrangement along with
      the value of the assets involved such arrangements. The said value should be
      calculated by the register valuer.

(m) In case where the concerned director/connected person is also a director of the
    holding company, the auditor would need to check whether the holding
    company has complied with the requirements. For this purpose, the auditor
    would need to obtain a management representation letter from the holding
    company through the management of the auditee company.

Suggested paragraph on reporting:

According to the information and explanations given to us, the Company has entered
into non-cash transactions with one of the directors/ person connected with the
director during the year, by the acquisition of assets by assuming directly related
liabilities, which in our opinion is covered under the provisions of Section 192 of the
Act, and for which approval has not yet been obtained in a general meeting of the
Company.
52. Whether the company is required to be registered under section 45-IA of
the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and if so, whether the registration has
been obtained. [Paragraph 3(xvi)]



                                               63
Relevant Provisions
(a)   The auditor is required to examine whether the company is engaged in the
      business which attract the requirements of the registration. The registration is
      required where the financing activity is a principal business of the company.
(b)   The Reserve Bank of India restrict companies from carrying on the business of
      a non-banking financial institution without obtaining the certificate of
      registration. The relevant Text of the Section 45-IA is reproduced in Appendix
      XI to this Guidance Note.
(c)   A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the
      Act, engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of
      shares/stocks/bonds/debentures/securities issued by Government or local
      authority or other marketable securities of a like nature, leasing, hire-purchase,
      insurance business, chit business but does not include any institution whose
      principal business is that of agriculture activity, industrial activity, purchase or
      sale of any goods (other than securities) or providing any services and
      sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.
      A non-banking institution which is a company and has principal business of
      receiving deposits under any scheme or arrangement in one lump sum or in
      installments by way of contributions or in any other manner, is also a non-
      banking financial company (Residuary non-banking company).

Audit Procedures and Reporting
(d)   What does conducting financial activity as "principal business" mean? The
      response to an FAQ as given by Reserve Bank of India required to be
      considered while examining the requirement of registration:-.
      "Financial activity as principal business is when a company's financial assets
      constitute more than 50 per cent of the total assets and income from financial
      assets constitute more than 50 per cent of the gross income. A company which
      fulfils both these criteria will be registered as NBFC by RBI. The term 'principal
      business' is not defined by the Reserve Bank of India Act. The Reserve Bank
      has defined it so as to ensure that only companies predominantly engaged in
      financial activity get registered with it and are regulated and supervised by it.
      Hence if there are companies engaged in agricultural operations, industrial
      activity, purchase and sale of goods, providing services or purchase, sale or
      construction of immovable property as their principal business and are doing
      some financial business in a small way, they will not be regulated by the
      Reserve Bank. Interestingly, this test is popularly known as 50-50 test and is
      applied to determine whether or not a company is into financial business. (As
      per FAQ response of question - What does conducting financial activity as
      "principal                              business"                         mean?
      https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/FAQView.aspx?Id=92)"
(e)   NBFCs are doing functions similar to banks, however there exist difference
      between banks & NBFCs. NBFCs lend and make investments and hence their
      activities are akin to that of banks; however there are a few differences as
      given below:

                                               64
      (i)     NBFC cannot accept demand deposits;
      (ii)    NBFCs do not form part of the payment and settlement system and
              cannot issue cheques drawn on itself;
      (iii)   deposit insurance facility of Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee
              Corporation is not available to depositors of NBFCs, unlike in case of
              banks.
      (As per FAQ response of question NBFCs are doing functions similar to banks.
      What is difference between banks & NBFCs?
      https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/FAQView.aspx?Id=92)"
(f)   As per Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 Section 45I Clause (c) any company
      carries on as its business or part of its business any activity considered as
      carrying on the business of Financial Institution. The relevant text of the Section
      45I(c) reproduced in Appendix III to this Guidance Note.
(g)   Further Section 45-I Clause (f) of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 defines
      the Non-Banking Financial Company reproduced in Appendix III to this
      Guidance Note.
(h)   The Reserve Bank of India defined "net owned fund" as (a) the aggregate of
      the paid-up equity capital and free reserves as disclosed in the latest balance-
      sheet of the company after deducting there from (i) accumulated balance of
      loss; (ii) deferred revenue expenditure; and (iii) other intangible assets; and (b)
      further reduced by the amounts representing­ (1) investments of such
      company in shares of­ (i) its subsidiaries; (ii) companies in the same group; (iii)
      all other non-banking financial companies; and (2) the book value of
      debentures, bonds, outstanding loans and advances (including hire-purchase
      and lease finance) made to, and deposits with,­ (i) subsidiaries of such
      company; and (ii) companies in the same group, to the extent such amount
      exceeds ten per cent of (a) above. ("Subsidiaries" and "companies in the same
      group" shall have the same meanings assigned to them in the Companies Act,
      1956.)
Audit Procedures and Reporting
(i)   The auditor should examine the transactions of the company with relation to the
      activities covered under the RBI Act and directions related to the Non Banking
      Finance companies
(j)   The financial statements should be examined to ascertain whether company's
      financial assets constitute more than 50 per cent of the total assets and income
      from financial assets constitute more than 50 per cent of the gross income.
(k)   Whether the company has net owned funds as required for the registration as
      NBFC
(l)   Whether the company has obtained the registration as NBFC, if not, the
      reasons should be sought from the management and documented.
(m) The auditor should report incorporating the following:-


                                              65
      (i)     Whether the registration is required under section 45-IA of the RBI Act
      (ii)    If so , whether it has obtained
      (iii)   If not obtained , reasons thereof
Comments on Form of Report
53. The Order requires that the auditor should make a statement on all such
matters contained therein as are applicable to the company. The Order further
provides that where an auditor is unable to express any opinion, he should indicate
such fact. The auditor is also required to give reasons for any unfavourable or
qualified answer. Further, where the auditor is unable to express an opinion on any
such matter which is applicable to the company, he is also required to indicate in his
report such fact together with the reasons as to why he is unable to express any
opinion.
54. A question may also arise whether it is necessary for the auditor to include in
his report the management's explanation for any matter on which he makes an
unfavourable comment. Normally, such an explanation need not be included but
there may be circumstances where the auditor feels such inclusion is necessary.
Examples of such circumstances would be:
(a)   to make the comment itself more meaningful and complete. For example,
      physical verification of inventories, though planned, may not have been carried
      out because of a strike or a lockout. An unfavourable comment without this
      explanation would be misleading;
(b)   to explain the fact why in spite of an unfavourable comment, the true and fair
      view of the financial statements is not vitiated. For example, physical
      verification of a part of the inventories at the year-end may not have been
      carried out, but there is sufficient other evidence produced by the management
      which satisfies the auditor regarding the existence, condition and value of the
      inventories.
55. If any of the comments on matters specified in the Order are adverse, the
auditor should consider whether his comments have a bearing on the true and fair
view presented by the financial statements and, therefore, might warrant a
modification in the report under sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) of section 143
56. If the auditor is of the opinion that any of the unfavourable comments on
matters specified in the Order results in a qualification under sub-sections (2) and (3)
of section 143 the manner of reporting would have to be in accordance with the
principles enunciated in SA 705, "Modifications to the Opinion in the Independent
Auditor's Report".
57. Even where there are no unfavourable comments under the Order, it may be
advisable for the auditor to preface his report under sub-sections (2) and (3) of
section 143 with the words:
      "Further to our comments in the Annexure, we state that..........................."
58. It should not, however, be assumed that every unfavourable comment under
the Order would necessarily result in a qualification in the report under sub-sections

                                                  66
(2) and (3) of section 143. Firstly, the unfavourable comment may be regarding a
matter which has no relevance to a true and fair view presented by the financial
statements, for example, the failure of the company to deposit provident fund dues in
time or to comply with the requirements regarding acceptance of deposits. Secondly,
while the non-compliance may be material enough to warrant an unfavourable
comment under the Order, it may not be material enough to affect the true and fair
view presented by the financial statements. Finally, the non-compliance may be in an
area which calls for remedial action on the part of the management, and may be
important for that reason but may not be sufficiently important in the context of the
report under sub-sections (2) and (3). In deciding, therefore, whether a qualification
in the report under sub-sections (2) & (3) is necessary, the auditor should use his
professional judgement in the facts and circumstances of each case.
59. Where there is a unfavourable both under sub-section (1) of section 143 of the
Act and under the Order, it is suggested that the qualification under sub-section (1)
precede the qualification under the Order.
60. It is important to note that replies to many of the requirements of the Order will
involve expression of opinion and not necessarily statement of facts. It is necessary,
therefore, that this is indicated when making the report under the Order. This can be
done in either of the following ways:
(a)   By a general preface to the comments under the Order on the following lines:
      "In terms of the information and explanations sought by us and given by the
      company and the books and records examined by us in the normal course of
      audit and to the best of our knowledge and belief, we state
      that.............................."
                                         or
(b)   by a preface to individual comments, for example,
      "In our opinion" or "In our opinion and according to the information and
      explanations given to us during the course of the audit..."
61. The Order requires that where the answer to a question is unfavourable or
qualified, the auditor's report should also state the reasons for such unfavourable or
qualified answer. While it is not necessary for the auditor to give very detailed
reasons for an unfavourable or qualified answer, he is expected to explain the
general nature of the qualification or adverse comment in clear and unambiguous
terms.
62. Similar considerations would apply when the auditor is unable to express an
opinion. In such circumstances, he should clearly state that he is unable to express
an opinion because such records or evidence have not been produced before him.
63. In expressing an opinion, the auditor should be quite clear as to whether the
circumstances of the case warrant a negative answer or whether his opinion can be
expressed subject to a qualification.
64. The auditor's report under sub-section (3) of section 143 is required to state
whether the auditor has sought and obtained all the information and explanations
which to the best of his knowledge and belief, were necessary for the purposes of his

                                              67
audit and if not, the details thereof and the effect of such information on the financial
statements . The term "audit" would include the reporting requirements under the
Order. Therefore, when making his report, the auditor has to consider whether he
has sought and obtained the information and explanations needed not merely for the
purposes of normal audit, but also for the purpose of reporting in terms of the Order.
If he has sought but not received the information and explanations necessary for
reporting in terms of the Order, he should mention that fact both when reporting on
the specific question in the Order and also consider the impact of such non receipt of
the information on the auditor's report under section 143(3)(a) of the Act.
Board's Report
65. Section 134(3)(f) of the Act requires that the board of directors shall be bound
to give in its report the fullest information and explanations regarding every
reservation, qualification or adverse remark or disclaimer contained in the auditor's
report. The auditor's comments in terms of the Order form part of his report and,
therefore, the Board will be bound to give in its report the fullest information and
explanations regarding every unfavourable comment or qualification therein.
66. The auditor's comments in terms of the Order may be in respect of matters of
fact or they may be an expression of opinion. It is necessary that there should be no
inconsistency in the facts as stated by the auditor and as explained in the board's
report. It is, therefore, suggested that wherever possible, a draft report should be
submitted to the Board to verify and confirm the facts stated therein.
67. It is, however, possible that, on the same facts, there may be a genuine
difference of opinion between the auditor and the Board. In such a case, each is
entitled to hold his or its view. Therefore, the expression of a different opinion in the
Board's report should not be regarded as any reflection on the opinion expressed by
the auditor.




                                              68
                                                                            Appendix I
                                  Text of the CARO, 2016
                            MINISTRY OF CORPORATE AFFAIRS
                                            ORDER
                                                     New Delhi, the 29th March, 2016
S.O 1228(E).--In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (11) of section
143 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013 ) and in supersession of the Companies
(Auditor's Report) Order, 2015published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part
II, Section 3, Sub-section (ii), vide number S.O. 990 (E), dated the 10th April, 2015,
except as respects things done or omitted to be done before such supersession, the
Central Government, after consultation with the, committee constituted under proviso
to sub-section (11) of section 143 of the Companies Act, 2013 hereby makes the
following Order, namely:--
1.   Short title, application and commencement.- (1) This Order may be called
the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2016.
(2) It shall apply to every company including a foreign company as defined in
clause (42) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013) [hereinafter
referred to as the Companies Act], except­
(i)     a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking
        Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);
(ii)    an insurance company as defined under the Insurance Act,1938 (4 of 1938);
(iii)   a company licensed to operate under section 8 of the Companies Act;
(iv)    a One Person Company as defined under clause (62) of section 2 of the
        Companies Act and a small company as defined under clause (85) of section 2
        of the Companies Act; and
(v)     a private limited company, not being a subsidiary or holding company of a
        public company, having a paid up capital and reserves and surplus not more
        than rupees one crore as on the balance sheet date and which does not have
        total borrowings exceeding rupees one crore from any bank or financial
        institution at any point of time during the financial year and which does not have
        a total revenue as disclosed in Scheduled III to the Companies Act, 2013
        (including revenue from discontinuing operations) exceeding rupees ten crore
        during the financial year as per the financial statements.
2.   Auditor's report to contain matters specified in paragraphs 3 and 4. -
Every report made by the auditor under section 143 of the Companies Act, 2013 on
the accounts of every company audited by him, to which this Order applies, for the
financial years commencing on or after 1st April, 2015, shall in addition, contain the
matters specified in paragraphs 3 and 4,as may be applicable:
Provided the Order shall not apply to the auditor's report on consolidated financial
statements.


                                                69
3.    Matters to be included in the auditor's report. - The auditor's report on the
accounts of a company to which this Order applies shall include a statement on the
following matters, namely:-
(i)     (a) whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full
        particulars, including quantitative details and situation of fixed assets;
        (b) whether these fixed assets have been physically verified by the
        management at reasonable intervals; whether any material discrepancies were
        noticed on such verification and if so, whether the same have been properly
        dealt with in the books of account;
        (c) whether the title deeds of immovable properties are held in the name of the
        company. If not, provide the details thereof;
(ii)    whether physical verification of inventory has been conducted at reasonable
        intervals by the management and whether any material discrepancies were
        noticed and if so, whether they have been properly dealt with in the books of
        account;
(iii)   whether the company has granted any loans, secured or unsecured to
        companies, firms, Limited Liability Partnerships or other parties covered in the
        register maintained under section 189 of the Companies Act, 2013.If so,
        (a) whether the terms and conditions of the grant of such loans are not
        prejudicial to the company's interest;
        (b) whether the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of interest
        has been stipulated and whether the repayments or receipts are regular;
        (c) if the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more than
        ninety days, and whether reasonable steps have been taken by the company
        for recovery of the principal and interest;
(iv)    in respect of loans, investments, guarantees, and security whether provisions
        of section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with. If
        not, provide the details thereof.
(v)     in case, the company has accepted deposits, whether the directives issued by
        the Reserve Bank of India and the provisions of sections 73 to 76 or any other
        relevant provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the rules framed
        thereunder, where applicable, have been complied with? If not, the nature of
        such contraventions be stated; If an order has been passed by Company Law
        Board or National Company Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any court
        or any other tribunal, whether the same has been complied with or not?
(vi)    whether maintenance of cost records has been specified by the Central
        Government under sub-section (1) of section 148 of the Companies Act, 2013
        and whether such accounts and records have been so made and maintained.
(vii) (a) whether the company is regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues
      including provident fund, employees' state insurance, income-tax, sales-tax,
      service tax, duty of customs, duty of excise, value added tax, cess and any
      other statutory dues to the appropriate authorities and if not, the extent of the

                                               70
       arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the financial year
       concerned for a period of more than six months from the date they became
       payable, shall be indicated;
       (b) where dues of income tax or sales tax or service tax or duty of customs or
       duty of excise or value added tax have not been deposited on account of any
       dispute, then the amounts involved and the forum where dispute is pending
       shall be mentioned. (A mere representation to the concerned Department shall
       not be treated as a dispute).
(viii) whether the company has defaulted in repayment of loans or borrowing to a
       financial institution, bank, government or dues to debenture holders? If yes, the
       period and the amount of default to be reported (in case of defaults to banks,
       financial institutions, and government, lender wise details to be provided).
(ix)   whether moneys raised by way of initial public offer or further public offer
       (including debt instruments) and term loans were applied for the purposes for
       which those are raised. If not, the details together with delays or default and
       subsequent rectification, if any, as may be applicable, be reported;
(x)    whether any fraud by the company or any fraud on the Company by its officers
       or employees has been noticed or reported during the year; If yes, the nature
       and the amount involved is to be indicated;
(xi)   whether managerial remuneration has been paid or provided in accordance
       with the requisite approvals mandated by the provisions of section 197 read
       with Schedule V to the Companies Act? If not, state the amount involved and
       steps taken by the company for securing refund of the same;
(xii) whether the Nidhi Company has complied with the Net Owned Funds to
      Deposits in the ratio of 1: 20 to meet out the liability and whether the Nidhi
      Company is maintaining ten per cent unencumbered term deposits as specified
      in the Nidhi Rules, 2014 to meet out the liability;
(xiii) whether all transactions with the related parties are in compliance with section
       177 and 188 of Companies Act, 2013 where applicable and the details have
       been disclosed in the Financial Statements etc., as required by the applicable
       accounting standards;
(xiv) whether the company has made any preferential allotment or private placement
      of shares or fully or partly convertible debentures during the year under review
      and if so, as to whether the requirement of section 42 of the Companies Act,
      2013 have been complied with and the amount raised have been used for the
      purposes for which the funds were raised. If not, provide the details in respect
      of the amount involved and nature of non-compliance;
(xv) whether the company has entered into any non-cash transactions with directors
     or persons connected with him and if so, whether the provisions of section 192
     of Companies Act, 2013 have been complied with;
(xvi) whether the company is required to be registered under section 45-IA of the
      Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and if so, whether the registration has been
      obtained.

                                              71
4.   Reasons to be stated for unfavourable or qualified answers.- (1) Where, in
the auditor's report, the answer to any of the questions referred to in paragraph 3 is
unfavourable or qualified, the auditor's report shall also state the basis for such
unfavourable or qualified answer, as the case may be.
(2) Where the auditor is unable to express any opinion on any specified matter, his
report shall indicate such fact together with the reasons as to why it is not possible
for him to give his opinion on the same.


                                                            [F. No. 17/45/2015-CL-V]


                                              AMARDEEP SINGH BHATIA, Jt. Secy.




                                             72
                                                                          Appendix II
       Clause-by-clause comparison of the reporting requirements of
                    the Order and the erstwhile CARO 2015
1.    Short title, application and commencement. -
(1)   This order may be called the Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 20152016.
(2)    It shall apply to every company including a foreign company as defined in
      clause (42) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013) [hereinafter
      referred to as the Companies Act], except -
      (i)     a banking company as defined in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking
              Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);
      (ii)    an insurance company as defined under the Insurance Act, 1938 (4 of
              1938);
      (iii)   a company licensed to operate under section 8 of the Companies Act;
      (iv)    a One Person Company as defined under clause (62) of section 2 of the
              Companies Act, and a small company as defined under clause (85) of
              section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013; and
      (v)     a private limited company, not being a subsidiary or holding company of a
              public company,with havinga paid up capital and reserves and surplus not
              more than rupees fifty lakh one croreas on the balance sheet date and
              which does not have total borrowings loan outstanding exceeding rupees
              twenty five lakh one crorefrom any bank or financial institution at any
              point of time during the financial year; and which does not have a total
              revenue as disclosed in Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013
              (including revenue from discontinuing operations) turnover exceeding
              rupees five ten crore at any point of time during the financial year.during
              the financial year as per the financial statements.
2. Auditor's report to contain matters specified in paragraphs 3 and 4. - Every
report made by the auditor under section 143 of the Companies Act, 2013 on the
accounts of every company audited examined by him to which this Order applies for
the financial year commencing on or after 1st April, 20164, shall contain the matters
specified in paragraphs 3 and 4.
Provided the Order shall not apply to the auditor's report on consolidated financial
statements.
3. Matters to be included in the auditor's report. - The auditor's report on the
account of a company to which this Order applies shall include a statement on the
following matters, namely:
(i)   (a) whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full particulars,
      including quantitative details and situation of fixed assets;
      (b) whether these fixed assets have been physically verified by the
      management at reasonable intervals; whether any material discrepancies were


                                                73
        noticed on such verification and if so, whether the same have been properly
        dealt with in the books of account;
        (c) whether the title deeds of immovable properties are held in the name of
        the company. If not, provide the details thereof.
(ii)    (a) whether physical verification or inventory has been conducted at reasonable
        intervals by the management;
        (b) are the procedures of physical verification of inventory followed by the
        management reasonable and adequate in relation to the size of the company
        and the nature of its business. If not, the inadequacies in such procedures
        should be reported;
        (c) whether the company is maintaining proper records of inventory and
        whether any material discrepancies were noticed on physical verification and if
        so, whether the same have been properly dealt with in the books of account;
(iii)   whether the company has granted any loans, secured or unsecured to
        companies, firms, limited liability partnerships or other parties covered in the
        register maintained under section 189 of the Companies Act, 2013. If so,
        (a)   whethertheterms and conditions of the grant of such loans are not
              prejudicial to the company's interest;
        (ab) whetherthe schedule of repayment receipt or the principal amount and
             payment of interest has been stipulated and whether repayments or
             receipts are also regular; and
        (cb) if the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more than
             ninety days, and amount is more than rupees one lakh, whether
             reasonable steps have been taken by the company for recovery of the
             principal and interest;
(iv)    is there an adequate internal control system commensurate with the size of the
        company and the nature of its business, for the purchase of inventory and fixed
        assets and for the sale of goods and services.
(iv)    in respect of loans, investments, guarantees and security whether provisions of
        section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act 2013 have been complied with. If
        not, provide the details thereof.
(iv) in case the company has accepted deposits, whether the directives issued by the
       Reserve Bank of India and the provisions of sections 73 to 76 or any other
       relevant provisions of the Companies Act and the rules framed there under,
       where applicable, have been complied with? if not, the nature of contraventions
       should be stated; If an order has been passed by Company Law Board or
       National Company Law Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any court or any
       other tribunal, whether the same has been complied with or not?
(vi) where maintenance of cost records has been specified by the Central
     Government under sub-section (1) of section 148 of the Companies Act,
     whether such accounts and records have been made and maintained;





                                               74
(vii) (a) is Whether the company regular in depositing undisputed statutory dues
      including provident fund, employees' state insurance, income-tax, sales-Ltax,
      wealth tax, service tax, duty of customs, duty of excise, value added tax, cess
      and any other statutory dues with the appropriate authorities and if not, the
      extent of the arrears of outstanding statutory dues as at on the last day of the
      financial year concerned for a period of more than six months from the date
      they became payable, shall be indicated by the auditor.
       (b) where in case dues of income tax or sales tax or wealth tax or service tax or
       duty of customs or duty of excise or value added tax or cess have not been
       deposited on account of any dispute, then the amounts involved and the forum
       where dispute is pending shall be mentioned. (A mere representation to the
       concerned Department shall not constitute a dispute).
       (c) whether the amount required to be transferred to investor education and
       protection fund in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Companies
       Act, 1956 ( 1 of 1956) and rules made thereunder has been transferred to such
       fund within time.
(viii) whether in case of a company which has been registered for a period not less
       than five years, its accumulated losses at the end of the financial year are not
       less than fifty per cent of its net worth and whether it has incurred cash losses
       in such financial year and in the immediately preceding financial year;
(viiix) whether the company has defaulted in repayment of loans or borrowing dues to
        a financial institution,or bank, government or dues to debenture holders? If
        yes, the period and amount of default to be reported (in case of defaults to
        banks, financial institutions, and government, lenderwise details to be
        provided);
(x)    whether the company has given any guarantee for loans taken by others (other
       than to subsidiaries) from banks or financial institutions, the terms and
       conditions whereof are prejudicial to the interest of the company;
(xiix) whether moneys raised by way of initial public offer or further public offer
       (including debt instruments) and term loans were applied for the purpose for
       which those are raised?; If not, the details together with delaysordefaults and
       subsequent rectification, if any, as may be applicable, to be reported;
(xi)   whether any fraud on or by the company or any fraud on the company by its
       officers or employees has been noticed or reported during the year; If yes, the
       nature and the amount involved is to be indicated.
(xi)   Whether managerial remuneration has been paidorprovided in accordance with
       the requisite approvals mandated by the provisions of section 197 read with
       schedule V to the Companies Act? If not, the amount involved and steps taken
       by the company for securing refund of the same.
(xii) whether the Nidhi Company has complied with the Net Owned Funds to
      Deposits in the ratio of 1:20 to meet out the liability and whether the Nidhi
      Company is maintainingten percent unencumbered term deposits as specified
      in the Nidhi Rules, 2014 to meet out the liability;


                                              75
(xiii) whether all transactions with the related parties are in compliance with section
       177 and 188 of the Companies Act, 2013 where applicable and the details have
       been disclosed in the financial statements etc., as required by theapplicable
       accounting standards;
(xiv) Whether the company has made any preferential allotment or private
      placement of shares or fully or partly convertible debentures during the year
      under review and if so, as to whether the requirement of section 42 of the
      Companies Act 2013 have been complied with and theamount raised have
      been used for the purposes for which the funds were raised. If not, provide the
      details in respect of the amount involved and nature of non-compliance;
(xv) whether the company has entered into any non-cash transactions with directors
     or persons connected with him and if so, whether the provisions of section 192
     of Companies Act 2013 have been complied with;
(xvi) whether the company is required to be registered under section 45-IA of the
      Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and if so, whether theregistration has been
      obtained.
4.   Reasons to be stated for unfavourable or qualified answers.-(1) Where, in
the auditor's report, the answer to any of the questions referred to in paragraph 3 is
unfavourable or qualified, the auditor's report shall also state the reasons for such
unfavourable or qualified answer, as the case may be.
(2) Where the auditor is unable to express any opinion on any specified matterin
answer to a particular question, his report shall indicate such fact together with the
reasons why it is not possible for him to give an answer to such question his opinion
on the same.




                                             76
                                                                         Appendix-III
                 List of Financial Institutions Covered Under
             the Companies (Acceptance of Deposit) Rules, 2014
1.     Sub section (39) of section 2 of Companies Act,2013 defines the term "financial
institution" as, it includes a scheduled bank, and any other financial institution
defined or notified under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934). The term
financial institution has been defined under Section 45I clause (c) of the RBI Act
1934 as under:-
45I (c) ``financial institution'' means any non-banking institution which carries
on as its business or part of its business any of the following activities, namely:­
(i)    the financing, whether by way of making loans or advances or otherwise, of
       any activity other than its own:
(ii)    the acquisition of shares, stock, bonds, debentures or securities issued by
       a Government or local authority or other marketable securities of a like
       nature:
(iii) letting or delivering of any goods to a hirer under a hire-purchase
      agreement as defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Hire-Purchase Act,
      1972:
(iv) the carrying on of any class of insurance business;
(v)    managing, conducting or supervising, as foreman, agent or in any other
       capacity, of chits or kuries as defined in any law which is for the time being
       in force in any State, or any business, which is similar thereto;
(vi) collecting, for any purpose or under any scheme or arrangement by
     whatever name called, monies in lumpsum or otherwise, by way of
     subscriptions or by sale of units, or other instruments or in any other
     manner and awarding prizes or gifts, whether in cash or kind, or disbursing
     monies in any other way, to persons from whom monies are collected or to
     any other person, 2 [but does not include any institution, which carries on
     as its principal business,­
       (a)    agricultural operations; or
              (aa) industrial activity; or]
       (b)    the purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities) or the
              providing of any services; or
       (c)    the purchase, construction or sale of immovable property, so
              however, that no portion of the income of the institution is derived
              from the financing of purchases, constructions or sales of immovable
              property by other persons;
       Explanation.­ For the purposes of this clause, ``industrial activity'' means
       any activity specified in sub-clauses (i) to (xviii) of clause (c) of section 2 of
       the Industrial Development Bank of India Act, 1964;


                                               77
Further ``non-banking institution'' has been defined under clause (e) of
Section 45-I of RBI Act 1934 as under:-
45-I (e) ``non-banking institution'' means a company, corporation or cooperative
society.
Further ``non-banking financial company'' has been defined under clause
(f) of Section 45-I of RBI Act 1934 as under:-
45-I (f) ``non-banking financial company'' means­
(i)     a financial institution which is a company;
(ii)    a non-banking institution which is a company and which has as its principal
        business the receiving of deposits, under any scheme or arrangement or in
        any other manner, or lending in any manner;
(iii) such other non-banking institution or class of such institutions, as the Bank
      may, with the previous approval of the Central Government and by
      notification in the Official Gazette, specify;
2.    Section 2(72) of the Companies Act, 2013 defines "public financial institutions
"as follows:
(i)     the Life Insurance Corporation of India, established under section 3 of the
        Life Insurance Corporation Act, 1956;
(ii)    the Infrastructure Development Finance Company Limited, referred to in
        clause (vi) of sub-section (1) of section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 so
        repealed under section 465 of this Act;
(iii)   specified company referred to in the Unit Trust of India (Transfer of
        Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 2002;
(iv)    institutions notified by the Central Government under sub-section (2) of
        section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 so repealed under section 465 of
        this Act;
(v)     such other institution as may be notified by the Central Government in
        consultation with the Reserve Bank of India:
        Provided that no institution shall be so notified unless--
        (A)   it has been established or constituted by or under any Central or State
              Act; or
        (B)   not less than fifty-one per cent of the paid-up share capital is held or
              controlled by the Central Government or by any State Government or
              Governments or partly by the Central Government and partly by one
              or more State Governments;
3.    Sub-section (72) of section 2 of the Act, empowers the Central Government to
notify in the Official gazette such other institution as it may think fit to be a public
financial institution. The Central Government has so far notified the following 58
public financial institutions:
1.      The Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India established under the Industrial
                                              78
     Reconstruction Bank of India Act, 1984.
2.   The General Insurance Corporation of India, formed and registered under the
     General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1984.
3.   The National Insurance Company Limited, formed and registered under the
     Companies Act, 1956.
4.   The New India Assurance Company Limited, formed and registered under the
     Companies Act, 1956.
5.   The Oriental Fire and General Insurance Company Limited, formed and
     registered under the Companies Act, 1956.
6.   The United Fire and General Insurance Company Limited, formed and
     registered under the Companies Act, 1956.
7.   The Shipping Company and Investment Company of India Limited.
8.   Tourism Finance Corporation of India Limited, formed and registered under the
     Companies Act, 1956.
9.   IFCI Venture Capital Funds Limited formed and registered under the
     Companies Act, 1956.
10. Technology Development and Informations Company of India Limited, formed
    and registered under the Companies Act, 1956.
11. Power Finance Corporation Limited, formed and registered under the
    Companies Act, 1956.
12. National Housing Bank, established under the NHB Act, 1987.
13. Small Industries Development Bank of India Limited established under the
    Small Industries Development Bank of India Act, 1989.
14. Rural Electrification Corporation Limited formed and registered under the
    Companies Act, 1956.
15. Indian Railway Finance Corporation Limited, formed and registered under the
    Companies Act, 1956.
16. Industrial Finance Corporation of India Limited, formed and registered under
    the Companies Act, 1956.
17. Andhra Pradesh State Financial Corporation.
18. Assam Financial Corporation.
19. Bihar State Financial Corporation.
20. Delhi Financial Corporation.
21. Gujarat Financial Corporation.
22. Haryana Financial Corporation.
23. Himachal Pradesh Financial Corporation.

                                           79
24. Jammu and Kashmir State Financial Corporation.
25. Karnataka State Financial Corporation.
26. Kerala Financial Corporation.
27. Madhya Pradesh Financial Corporation.
28. Maharashtra State Financial Corporation.
29. Orissa State Financial Corporation.
30. Punjab Financial Corporation.
31. Rajasthan Financial Corporation.
32. Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation Limited.
33. Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation.
34. West Bengal Financial Corporation.
35. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited.
36. North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited.
37. Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited.
38. Export and Import Bank of India.
39. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).
40. National Co-operative Department Corporation (NCDC).
41. National Dairy Development Bank (NDDB)
42. The Pradeshiya Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Limited.
43. Rajasthan State Industrial Development and Investment Corporation Limited.
44. The State Industrial and Investment Corporation of Maharashtra Limited.
45. West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation Limited.
46. Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation Limited.
47. The Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation Limited (PSIDC).
48. Edc Limited
49. Tamil Nadu Power Finance And Infrastructure Development Corporation
    Limited
50. Tamilnadu Urban Finance And Infrastructure Development Corporation
    Limited
51. Kerala State Power And Infrastructure Finance Corporation Limited
52. Jammu And Kashmir Development Financial Corporation Limited
53. Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation Limited

                                             80
54. India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited
55. Gujarat Industrial Investment Corporation Limited.
56. Andhra Pradesh Industrial Development Corporation Limited.
57. Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development and Finance Corporation
    Limited
58. L&T Infrastructure Finance Company Limited.




                                          81
                                                                     Appendix IV
This checklist does not form part of the Guidance Note and is only illustrative in
nature. Members are expected to exercise their professional judgment while making
its use depending upon facts and circumstances of each case and read this check
list in conjunction with the Guidance Note on Companies (Auditor's Report) Order
2016.
                               An Illustrative Checklist
                       on Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2016
Client             :
Audit Period       :
Manager In-Charge:


Clause                                                          Working Paper
                            Particulars               Remarks
no.                                                             Reference
3(i)(a)   Whether the company is maintaining proper records showing full
          particulars, including quantitative details and situation of fixed
          assets.
(a)       Whether records of Fixed Assets
          (tangible, intangible and leased assets)
          are maintained showing the following
          particulars:
          (i)   Sufficient description (distinctive
          numbers,        purchase     agreement,
          documents, records and registration
          references, etc.) of the asset to make
          identification possible.
          (ii) Classification, that is, the head
          under which it is shown in the accounts,
          e.g., plant and machinery, office
          equipment, etc. component-wise, as
          applicable
          (iii)   Location/situation.
          (iv)    Quantity, i.e., number of units.
          (v)     Original cost.
          (vi)    Year of purchase.
          (vii) Adjustment for revaluation or for
          any increase or decrease in cost, e.g.,
          on revaluation of foreign exchange
          liabilities.


                                                82
          (viii) Date of revaluation, if any.
          (ix) Rate and basis of depreciation,
          useful    life, particulars regarding
          amortisation and impairment
          (x) Depreciation, amortisation         and
          impairment for the current year.
          (xi) Accumulated          depreciation,
          amortisation and impairment loss.
          (xii) Particulars    regarding       sale,
          discarding, demolition, destruction etc.
          (xiii) Particulars of fixed assets that
          have been retired from active use and
          held for disposal.
          (xiv) Particulars of fixed assets that
          have been fully depreciated or
          amortised or impaired.
(b)       Whether aggregate original cost,
          depreciation or amortisation to date and
          impairment loss, if any, as per the
          register/records agrees with General
          Ledger balances? If not, note the
          disagreements in respect of each class
          of assets.
          Conclusion:
3(i)(b)   Whether these fixed assets have been physically verified by the
          management at reasonable intervals; whether any material
          discrepancies were noticed on such verification and if so,
          whether the same have been properly dealt with in the books of
          account.
(a)       (i)  Whether Fixed Assets were
          physically verified at any time during the
          year or earlier years according to a
          phased program?
          (ii) What is the periodicity of physical
          verification and whether the same is
          reasonable?
          (iii) Whether assets physically verified
          agreed/ reconciled with book figures?
          If not, note the discrepancies against
          each class of assets in terms of value,
          and state how the discrepancies have


                                                83
          been dealt with.
          (iv) Instructions to officials for carrying
          out physical verification to include
          procedures, timing, competency of team
          members, countsheets/tags, formats
          etc.
(b)       Physically verify few items from the fixed
          asset register & vice versa.
(c)       Whether management representation is
          obtained confirming that:
                fixed assets are physically verified
          by the company in accordance with the
          policy of the company.
                 periodicity    of   the    physical
          verification of fixed assets.
                details      of      the     material
          discrepancies noticed during the
          physical verification of the fixed assets.
               If no discrepancies were noted
          during physical verification, the same
          should be clearly mentioned.
          Conclusion:

3(i)(c)   Whether the title deeds of immovable properties are held in the
          name of the company. If not, provide the details thereof;
(a)       Does the company have any immovable
          properties (land and buildings)?
           Has the Company identified the land
          and building on the basis of Fixed Asset
          Register.
(b)       Whether the title deeds of these
          immovable properties are in the name
          of the company?
          Whether the details as per title deeds
          reconcile with the details in Fixed assets
          register, if not, is there any material
          difference to be reported here
(c)       Has the management provided details
          of immovable properties not held in
          company's name (for example, location,
          description, and reasons for not being


                                              84
        held in the company's name?
        (i) In case the title deeds are lost,
        assess whether the certified copies of
        such documents are available with the
        company and what actions have been
        taken by the management in this
        regard?
        (ii) In case the title deeds are
        mortgaged with the lenders, assess if
        the confirmation from the lenders is
        obtained for the same.
        (iii) The    discrepancies   observed
        should be reported in the CARO report.
3(ii)   Whether physical verification of inventory has been conducted at
        reasonable intervals by the management and whether any
        material discrepancies were noticed and if so, whether they have
        been properly dealt with in the books of account.
(a)     Has the management physically verified
        the inventory, as defined in AS 2?
        Inventory normally includes-
            Raw materials and Components
            Packing materials
            Maintenance supplies
            Work in progress
            Finished Goods
            Stores and Spares
            Consumables and Loose tools
(b)     Whether      evidence     of     physical
        verification has been seen and
        reasonableness      of   periodicity   of
        physical verification evaluated? If yes,
        verify:
            written instructions issued by the
        management.
               duly    authenticated    physical
        verification sheets.
             duly    authenticated     summary
        sheets/ consolidation sheet
             internal   memo    etc.   regarding

                                           85
        issues arising on physical verification.
             any other documents evidencing
        physical verification.
(c)     Whether       the     original  physical
        verification sheets have been reviewed
        and selected items traced into the final
        inventories?      (including the more
        valuable ones as per ABC classification)
(d)     Whether the comparison of final
        inventories with stock has been done?
        Whether      records     and     other
        corroborative evidence, e.g. inventory
        statements submitted to banks?
(e)     In case of continuous stock taking
        method, whether management:
        (i)  maintains adequate and up-to-
        date stock records;
        (ii) has      established       adequate
        procedures for physical verification of
        inventories, so that in the normal
        circumstances, the programme of
        physical verification will cover all
        material items of inventory at least once
        during the year; and
        (iii) check/examine thoroughly and
        corrects    all  material differences
        between the book records and the
        physical counts.
(f)     Whether stock register is updated and
        value of inventory extracted from it tally
        with the books of account.
(g)     If any material discrepancies were
        found as compared to stock records,
        what were the extent of discrepancies
        (in terms of value) and how the same
        have been dealt with in the books of
        account as well as in the stock records?
        Conclusion:
3(iii)(a) Whether the company has granted any loans, secured or
          unsecured to companies, firms, limited liability partnerships or
          other parties covered in the register maintained under section
          189 of the Companies Act, 2013. If so, whether the terms and
          conditions of the grant of such loans are not prejudicial to the

                                            86
        company's interest;
        (i)  Has the Company granted any
        loans (Secured or Unsecured) to
        companies, firms, limited liability
        partnerships or other parties covered in
        the register maintained under Section
        189 of the Companies Act 2013?
        (ii) Where the company has granted
        any loans to parties covered in the
        register maintained under section 189 of
        the Act     and squared off during the
        year, obtain details of such transactions.
        (iii) Whether the terms of the above
        loans are prima facie prejudicial, due
        consideration to be given to the factors
        mentioned below:
             terms & condition of the loan
        repayment, rate of interest, restrictive
        covenants etc.,
               company's financial standing, its
        ability to lend, and terms of its
        borrowings
               borrower's financial standing
             the nature of the security,
             prevailing rate of interest, etc.
        Conclusion:
3(iii)(b) Whether the schedule of repayment of principal and payment of
          interest has been stipulated and whether the repayments or
          receipts are regular;
(a)     Whether the schedule of repayment of
        principal and payment of interest has
        been stipulated in the loan agreements /
        mutually agreed letter of arrangement at
        the time of sanction?
(b)     Whether repayment of principal amount
        and interest thereon are received
        regularly on the due date or immediately
        thereafter?
(c)     If not, the fact and details should be
        Obtained.
        Conclusion:

                                            87
3(iii)(c) If the amount is overdue, state the total amount overdue for more
          than ninety days, and whether reasonable steps have been taken
          by the company for recovery of the principal and interest.
(a)     Whether list of overdue amount has
        been     prepared   &recorded     and
        reasonable steps taken for recovery of
        amount of loan which is overdue more
        than ninety days?
(b)     Following documents may be seen for
        verification of reasonableness of steps
        taken by the company for recovery of
        principal and accrued interest on loan
        granted:
            Facts of each case including
        amounts involved
             Issue of reminder
              Sending of advocates or solicitor's
        notice
        In absence of legal steps whether
        auditor is satisfied that reasonable steps
        have been taken
(c)     Obtain management's representation
        regarding steps that have been taken for
        recovery of total amount overdue more
        than ninety days.
        Conclusion:
3(iv)   In respect of loans, investments, guarantees, and security
        whether provisions of section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act,
        2013 have been complied with. If not, provide the details thereof.
(a)     Where Companies has given loans to
        directors etc.:
        (i)   Whether any loans given to
        directors or any other person in whom
        the director is interested, or given any
        guarantee or provided any security in
        connection with any loan taken by
        directors or such other person?
        (ii) Whether any of the transaction is
        attracting the provisions of section 185?
        (iii) Whether any of such transactions
        are covered under the exceptions
        provided under section 185? If so,
                                           88
       obtain the relevant evidences ensuring
       such exemption.
(b)    Where company         has   made     loan/
       investment
       (i)   Obtain the details of loans and
       investment made by the Company
       including opening balances
       (ii) Whether company has made
       investment through more than two
       layers of investment companies?
       (iii) Whether    the     company      has
       exceeded the limit of sixty per cent of its
       paid-up share capital, free reserves and
       securities premium account or one
       hundred per cent of its free reserves
       and securities premium account,
       whichever is more?
       (iv) If so, whether prior approval by
       means of a special resolution passed at
       a general meeting has been obtained?
       (v) Whether the rate of interest
       charges is more or at par to the rates
       specified in subsection (7) of section
       186 of the Act, if not, the reasons
       thereof,
       Conclusion:
3(v)   In case the company has accepted deposits from the public,
       whether the directives issued by the Reserve Bank of India and
       the provisions of sections 73 to 76 or any other relevant
       provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the rules framed there
       under, where applicable, have been complied with. If not, the
       nature of such contraventions should be stated; if an order has
       been passed by Company Law Board or National Company Law
       Tribunal or Reserve Bank of India or any Court or any other
       Tribunal whether the same has been complied with or not?
(a)    If the Company has accepted deposits
       from the public state whether:
       (i) The directives issued by the
       Reserve Bank of India have been
       complied with and also that:
       (ii) The provisions of Section 73 to 76
       of the Companies Act, 2013 and the
       rules framed there under have been

                                           89
        complied with.
        (iii)   List out contraventions, if any.


(b)     Where an order has been passed by the
        CLB or National Company Law Tribunal
        or Reserve Bank of India or any Court
        or any other Tribunal in respect of
        above, examine the steps taken by the
        company to comply with the order, and
        if not, report briefly stating there in the
        nature of contravention and the fact that
        Company has not complied with the
        order.
        Conclusion:
3(vi)   Whether maintenance of cost records has been specified by the
        Central Government under sub-section (1) of section 148 of the
        Companies Act, 2013 and whether such accounts and records
        have been so made and maintained.
(a)     Whether cost accounting records have
        been prescribed for the company under
        section 148(1) of the Companies Ac,
        2013t? If so verify whether proper cost
        accounts and records are made and
        maintained by the Company as
        specified.
        Conclusion:
3(vii)(a) Whether the company is regular in depositing undisputed
          statutory dues including provident fund, employees' state
          insurance, income-tax, sales-tax, service tax, duty of customs,
          duty of excise, value added tax, cess and any other statutory
          dues to the appropriate authorities and if not, the extent of the
          arrears of outstanding statutory dues as on the last day of the
          financial year concerned for a period of more than six months
          from the date they became payable, shall be indicated.
(a)     Whether a list of statutory dues which
        company is required to deposit regularly
        has been obtained.
(b)     In case where there are no arrears on
        the balance sheet date but the company
        has been irregular during the year in
        depositing the statutory dues, the fact
        should be stated.


                                               90
(c)   Whether the Company has been
      generally regular in depositing statutory
      dues or otherwise, indicate the same.
      Note: A matter is disputed where there
      is a positive evidence or action on the
      part of the company to show that it has
      not accepted the demand for payment
      of tax or duty, e.g., where it has gone
      into appeal.
(d)   Whether penalty and/or interest levied
      under the respective law is included
      under amounts payable.
(e)   Ensure that disclosure is restricted to
      the actual arrears and should not
      include the amounts which have not
      fallen due for deposit and have been
      shown as arrears at the balance sheet
      date.
(f)   Whether the information about arrears
      of outstanding statutory dues is
      provided in the format:
           Name of the Statute
           Nature of the dues
           Amount (Rs.)
           Period to which amount relates
           Due date
           Date of Payment
(g)   Whether a written representation with
      reference to the date of the balance
      sheet from the management obtained:
          specifying the cases and the
      amounts considered disputed;
           containing a list of the cases and
      the amounts in respect of the statutory
      dues which are undisputed and have
      remained outstanding for a period of
      more than six months from the date
      they became payable;
          containing a statement as to the
      completeness   of the     information


                                         91
          provided by the management.
(h)       Whether any register of significant laws
          with which the entity has to comply
          within its particular industry and a
          record of complaints in respect of non-
          compliance been maintained
          Conclusion:
3(vii)(b) Where dues of income tax or sales tax or service tax or duty of
          customs or duty of excise or value added tax have not been
          deposited on account of any dispute, then the amounts involved
          and the forum where dispute is pending shall be mentioned. (A
          mere representation to the department shall not treated as a
          dispute.)
(a)       Review internal audit report, minutes of
          the meeting of the board of Directors
          and audit committee
(b)       Ensure that information about arrears of
          disputed statutory dues is provided in
          the format:
               Name of the Statute
               Nature of the dues
               Amount (Rs.)
               Period to which amount relates
               Forum where dispute is pending
          Conclusion:
3(viii)   Whether the company has defaulted in repayment of loans or
          borrowings to a financial institution, bank, government or dues to
          debenture holders? If yes, the period and the amount of default to
          be reported. (in case of defaults to banks, financial institutions,
          and government, lender wise details to be provided).
(a)       Whether all defaults existing at the
          balance sheet date are reported
          irrespective of when those defaults have
          occurred.
(b)       In case of defaults to banks, financial
          institutions, and government, whether
          lender wise details reported?
(c)       If application of reschedulement of loan
          has been made/accepted or default has
          been made good during the accounting
          period, whether the fact has been
                                            92
        stated.
(d)     Whether the disputes between the
        company and the lender on various
        issues give rise to disclaimer stating the
        fact there is a dispute between the
        company and the lender and auditor is
        unable to determine whether there is a
        default in repayment of dues to the
        lender concerned.
        Conclusion:
3(ix)   Whether moneys raised by way of initial public offer or further
        public offer (including debt instruments) and the term loans were
        applied for the purpose for which those were raised. If not, the
        details together with delays or default and subsequent
        rectification, if any, as may be applicable, be reported.
(a)     Whether the company raised money by
        way of initial public offer or further public
        offer of equity shares, convertible
        securities and debt securities?
(b)     Examine the terms and conditions
        stated in the offer document subject to
        which the company has raised the
        above mentioned money.
(c)     Whether the end use of the money
        raised (as mentioned above) is capable
        of being determined? If not state the
        fact.
(d)     Whether the said end-use of money
        disclosed in the financial statements by
        way of a Note is significantly different
        from the actual end use? If so, state the
        fact.
(e)     Examine the various documents
        submitted to SEBI, offer document and
        also examine the report of board of
        directors, if available, to find out
        whether funds raised have been utilized
        for the purpose for which they were
        raised.
(f)     Whether a representation of the
        management has been obtained as to
        the completeness of the disclosures
        with regard to the end-use of moneys
        raised by initial public offer and further

                                              93
       public offer?
(g)    Whether the fund flow statement has
       been reviewed where one to one
       correlation is not possible.
(h)    Whether the company has taken any
       term loan?
(i)    Examine the terms and conditions
       subject to which the company has
       obtained the term loans including
       purpose for which term loans were
       sanctioned?
(j)    Compare the purpose for which term
       loans were sanctioned with the actual
       utilisation of the loans and obtain
       sufficient appropriate audit evidence
       regarding the utilisation of the amounts
       raised.
(k)    In case during a construction phase
       surplus      funds     were    temporarily
       invested, however, subsequently the
       same are utilised for the stated
       objectives, mention the fact that the
       funds were temporarily used for the
       purpose other than for which the loan
       was sanctioned but were ultimately
       utilised for the stated end-use.
(l)    Whether term loans taken were not
       applied for stated purpose during the
       year for any reason? If yes, mention the
       facts and amount. Also disclose the fact
       about utilization of term loan of earlier
       year in current year.
(m)    Whether the fund flow statement has
       been reviewed where one to one
       correlation was not possible.
       Conclusion:
3(x)   Whether any fraud by the company or any fraud on the company
       by its officers or employees has been noticed or reported during
       the year. If yes, the nature and the amount involved is to be
       indicated.
(a)    Has SA 240 been complied with?
       (Attach the check list for compliance of
       SA 240 with this check list also).

                                          94
(b)      Examine the following to ascertain
         whether any fraud has been reported or
         noticed by the management?
              the reports of the internal Audit
               the auditor should enquire from the
         management about any frauds by the
         company or any fraud on the company
         by its officers or employees, that it has
         noticed or that have been reported to it.
             discuss the matter with other
         employees including officers of the
         company.
              examine the minutes book of the
         board meeting, audit committee etc., of
         the company in this regard.
(c)      Where any fraud by the company or any
         fraud on the company by its officers or
         employees has been noticed or
         reported, determine the nature and
         amount of frauds and disclose the
         same.        Obtain          management
         representation to this effect.
(d)      Whether any fraud has been reported
         by the auditor during the year under
         section 143(12)? If so, determine
         whether that same would be reported
         under this clause?
         Conclusion:
3 (xi)   whether managerial remuneration has been paid or provided in
         accordance with the requisite approvals mandated by the
         provisions of section 197 read with Schedule V to the Companies
         Act? If not, state the amount involved and steps taken by the
         company for securing refund of the same;
(a)      Has the company paid or provided for
         any managerial remuneration?
(b)      Obtain from management the details of
         managerial remuneration paid/ provided
         by the Company


         Ensure that the computation of
         managerial remuneration is done in
         accordance with the provisions of

                                             95
      section 197 read with Schedule V of
      Companies     Act,    2013      The
      remuneration does not include :


            Sitting Fees (within prescribed
      limits) (sub section 2 and 5 of Section
      197)
            Remuneration for professional
      services rendered (Sub section 4 of
      Section 197)
(c)   Obtain a general understanding of
      Section 197 read with Schedule V to the
      Act. Ascertain the system and
      procedures of the company to ensure
      compliance with the provisions of
      section 197 and Schedule V
(d)   Based on the understanding so gained,
      perform a reasonable test check of
      compliance     with     the aforesaid
      requirements of the Act.
(e)   Examine the steps taken by the
      company to comply with requirements of
      the Act with respect to managerial
      remuneration.      Examine         the
      correspondence and documents filed
      with the Registrar of Companies,
      Company       Law     Board,     legal
      correspondence for orders passed,
      minutes of the meetings of the Board
      and shareholders.
(f)   Examine whether the Company has
      obtained requisite approvals mandated
      by section 197 read with Schedule V to
      the Act.
(g)   Obtain    a    listing    of  managerial
      remuneration        rejected/   partially
      approved. Examine the same with
      underlying documents and obtain
      understanding of the steps taken by the
      Company for refund of unapproved
      managerial remuneration for reporting
      along with the amount involved.
      Assess if the management has waived
      recovery of the excess amount paid

                                        96
         over and above the prescribed limit.
(h)      Consider the implications of non-
         compliances above also in the auditors'
         opinion on the financial statements.
         In case of non-compliance, the amount
         involved would be the total amount
         involved which is in excess of the limit
         prescribed even though during the year
         the company may have recovered or
         partially recovered such amount.
         Obtain, examine and record the steps
         taken to secure the refund also
3(xii)   Whether the Nidhi Company has complied with the Net Owned
         Funds to Deposits in the ratio of 1:20 to meet out the liability and
         whether the Nidhi Company is maintaining ten per cent
         unencumbered term deposits as specified in the Nidhi Rules,
         2014 to meet out the liability.
(a)      Is the Company a nidhi company?
         Assess if the Company is registered as
         a Nidhi Company as per provisions of
         Section 406 of the Companies Act 2013
         or Section 620A of the Companies Act,
         1956.
(b)      To check compliance with the following:
         a) Whether the net owned funds to
         deposits ratio is more than 1:20 to meet
         out the liability as on the date of balance
         sheet?
         b) Examine whether the Nidhi Company
         is    maintaining      ten per   cent
         unencumbered term deposits as
         specified in the Nidhi Rules, 2014 to
         meet out the liability
         Whether the calculation of net owned
         funds is done as per Rule 3(d) which
         includes equity share capital, and free
         reserves as reduced by accumulated
         losses and intangible assets appearing
         in the last audited balance sheet:
         Assess if the proceeds of issue of
         preference shares have been included
         in the net owned funds.
         Ensure that ratio is computed by using

                                             97
           the figures of net owned funds and
           deposit liability computed in accordance
           with as stated under this clause.
           Conclusion:
3 (xiii)   Whether all transactions with the related parties are in
           compliance with sections 177 and 188 of Companies Act, 2013
           where applicable and the details have been disclosed in the
           Financial Statements etc., as required by the applicable
           accounting standards;
(a)        Obtain a statement containing details
           of transactions with related parties
           Obtain a list of companies, firms or
           other parties, the particulars of which
           are required to be entered in the
           register maintained under section 189
           of the Act.
           Obtain declarations made by the
           directors in Form MBP-1 i.e., general
           notice received from a director under
           Rule 9(1) of The Companies (Meetings
           of Board and Power) Rules, 2014
           Verify the entries made in the register
           under section 189 with such statement
           from management and declarations
           received from directors.
           Assess the additions/ deletions to such
           list for appropriateness based on
           relevant declarations
(b)        Obtain understanding of requirements
           of section 177 and 188 of the Act in
           relation to related party transactions
(c)        Perform reasonable check to ascertain
           completeness and accuracy of details
           in the statement.
(d)        Ascertain the system and procedures
           of the company to ensure compliance
           with the provisions of section 177 and
           188 of the Act Including the
           assessment of identification of related
           parties and whether the transaction is
           at arm's length and basis of such
           conclusion.


                                             98
(e)       Based on the understanding so gained,
          perform a reasonable test check of
          compliance    with     the  aforesaid
          requirements of the Act.
(f)       Examine minutes of meetings of the
          audit committee and agreements
          underlying related party transactions to
          ascertain audit committee approval for
          the transactions.
(g)       Examine the minutes of Board
          meetings to ascertain whether requisite
          approvals of Board is obtained for
          certain related party transactions as
          required under section 188 of the Act.
(h)       Where shareholders' approval is
          required, check whether the requisite
          approvals have been obtained as
          required under Section 188 of the Act
(i)       Examine     whether    related  party
          disclosures are made in the financial
          statements as per the requirements of
          Accounting Standard 18
(j)       Examine whether disclosure related to
          contracts or arrangements with related
          parties as mandated by section 188
          are made in Board's report
          Including      the   assessment      of
          identification of related parties and
          whether the transaction is at arm's
          length and basis of such conclusion.
(k)       Consider the implications of non-
          compliances above also in the auditors'
          opinion on the financial statements.
3 (xiv)   Whether the company has made any preferential allotment or
          private placement of shares or fully or partly convertible
          debentures during the year under review and if so, as to whether
          the requirement of section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013 have
          been complied with and the amount raised have been used for
          the purposes for which the funds were raised. If not, provide the
          details in respect of the amount involved and nature of non-
          compliance;
(a)       Has the Company made any
          preferential  allotment    or   private
          placement of shares or fully convertible

                                            99
         debentures during the year.
(b)      Obtain a statement containing the
         specific terms of offer for private
         placement, including purpose for which
         funds were raised, and the details of
         subsequent application-amounts, dates
         and the purpose.
(c)      Ascertain whether the offer and
         allotment of securities referred in 1
         above are in compliance with the
         requirements mandated by section 42
         of the Act.
(d)      Based on the understanding so gained,
         perform a reasonable test check of
         compliance with the requirements of
         the Act.
(e)      Consider the implications of non-
         compliances     above also in the
         auditors' report on the financial
         statements.
         Note: Reporting under this Clause is
         required also in instances where the
         amounts have been raised in earlier
         year(s) and is being utilized under the
         year under review.
3 (xv)   Whether the company has entered into any non-cash
         transactions with directors or persons connected with him and if
         so, whether the provisions of section 192 of Companies Act,
         2013 have been complied with.
(a)      Obtain a statement containing list of
         directors of the company, its holding
         company, subsidiary and associate
         companies and persons connected
         with the directors
(b)      Scrutinise the following books of
         account, records and documents could
         provide source of such audit evidence
         to the auditor as to the existence of
         such non-cash transactions as well as
         persons connected with the Directors:
         (i)   Form No. MBP 1, Notice of
         Interest by Director, filed pursuant to
         the Companies (Meetings of Board and
         Its Powers) Rules, 2014

                                          100
          (ii) Form No. MBP 2, Register of
          Loans, Guarantee, Security and
          Acquisition Made by the Company,
          filed pursuant to the Companies
          (Meetings of Board and Its Powers)
          Rules, 2014
          (iii) Form No. MBP 4, Register of
          Contracts with Related Party and
          Contracts and Bodies etc in which
          Directors are Interested, filed pursuant
          to the Companies (Meetings of Board
          and Its Powers) Rules, 2014
          (iv) Movements in the Fixed Asset
          Register
          (v)  Minutes book of the General
          Meeting and Meetings of Directors
          (vi) Report on Annual General
          Meeting pursuant to Companies
          (Management and Administration)
          Rules, 2014
          Minutes of meetings of Board of
          Directors and Audit committee
(c)       Obtain a statement from management
          containing transactions between the
          Company and director(s) referred to
          above
(d)       Perform reasonable check to ascertain
          non cash transactions
(e)       Obtain understanding of requirements
          of section 192 of the Act.
(f)       Based on the understanding so gained,
          perform a reasonable test check of
          compliance    with     the  aforesaid
          requirements of the Act.
(g)       Consider the implications of non-
          compliances      above also in the
          auditors' opinion on the financial
          statements.
3 (xvi)   Whether the company is required to be registered under section
          45-IA of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and if so, whether
          the registration has been obtained.
(a)       Examine the financial statements of the

                                           101
      Company and assess whether the
      company has financial assets and
      financial income
      Note: According to the RBI press
      release      1998-99/1269       dated
      08.04.1999, a company will be treated
      as NBFC if its financial assets are
      more than 50% of its total assets
      (netted off by intangible assets) and
      income from financial assets should be
      more than 50% of its gross income.
(b)   Check whether the company has
      financing activity as a principal
      business of the Company.
(c)   Obtain    understanding       of     the
      requirements of section 45-IA of RBI
      Act, 1934 with regard to registration of
      the company with RBI
(d)   Examine whether the Company is
      carrying out NBFC activity / Core
      investment company.
(e)   Examine the steps taken by the
      company to comply with requirements
      of the RBI Act, 1934 with respect to
      registration as a NBFC. Also examine
      the correspondence and documents
      filed with the RBI, minutes of the Board
      meeting.
(f)   Examine whether the Company has
      obtained Certificate of Registration
      from RBI in terms of section 45-IA of
      the RBI Act, 1934.
(g)   Consider the implications of non-
      compliances above also in the auditors'
      opinion on the financial statements.
                                                 Discussed with...............
                                                  Designation..................
                                                    Date........................




                                       102
                                                                            Appendix V
                  Text of Section 185 of the Companies Act, 2013
(1)   Save as otherwise provided in this Act, no company shall, directly or indirectly,
      advance any loan, including any loan represented by a book debt, to any of its
      directors or to any other person in whom the director is interested or give any
      guarantee or provide any security in connection with any loan taken by him or
      such other person:
      Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall apply to--
      (a)   the giving of any loan to a managing or whole-time director--
            (i)     as a part of the conditions of service extended by the company to all
                    its employees; or
            (ii)    pursuant to any scheme approved by the members by a special
                    resolution; or
      (b)   a company which in the ordinary course of its business provides loans or
            gives guarantees or securities for the due repayment of any loan and in
            respect of such loans and interest is charged at a rate not less than the
            bank rate declared by the Reserve Bank of India; or
      (c)   any loan made by a holding company to its wholly owned subsidiary
            company or any guarantee given or security provided by a holding
            company in respect of any loan made to its wholly owned subsidiary
            company; or
      (d)   any guarantee given or security provided by a holding company in respect
            of loan made by any bank or financial institution to its subsidiary
            company:
            Provided that the loans made under clauses (c) and (d) are utilised by the
            subsidiary company for its principal business activities.
      Explanation.--For the purposes of this section, the expression "to any other
      person in whom director is interested" means--
      (a)   any director of the lending company, or of a company which is its holding
            company or any partner or relative of any such director;
      (b)   any firm in which any such director or relative is a partner;
      (c)   any private company of which any such director is a director or member;
      (d)   any body corporate at a general meeting of which not less than twenty
            five per cent. of the total voting power may be exercised or controlled by
            any such director, or by two or more such directors, together; or
      (e)   any body corporate, the Board of directors, managing director or
            manager, whereof is accustomed to act in accordance with the directions
            or instructions of the Board, or of any director or directors, of the lending
            company.


                                               103
(2)   If any loan is advanced or a guarantee or security is given or provided in
      contravention of the provisions of sub-section (1), the company shall be
      punishable with fine which shall not be less than five lakh rupees but which
      may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees, and the director or the other person to
      whom any loan is advanced or guarantee or security is given or provided in
      connection with any loan taken by him or the other person, shall be punishable
      with imprisonment which may extend to six months or with fine which shall not
      be less than five lakh rupees but which may extend to twenty-five lakh rupees,
      or with both.


             Text of Section 186 of the Companies Act, 2013 and
                         relevant extract of the Rules
(1)   Without prejudice to the provisions contained in this Act, a company shall
      unless otherwise prescribed, make investment through not more than two
      layers of investment companies:
      Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not affect,--
      (i)    a company from acquiring any other company incorporated in a country
             outside India if such other company has investment subsidiaries beyond
             two layers as per the laws of such country;
      (ii)   a subsidiary company from having any investment subsidiary for the
             purposes of meeting the requirements under any law or under any rule or
             regulation framed under any law for the time being in force.
(2)   No company shall directly or indirectly --
      (a)    give any loan to any person or other body corporate;
      (b)    give any guarantee or provide security in connection with a loan to any
             other body corporate or person; and
      (c)    acquire by way of subscription, purchase or otherwise, the securities of
             any other body corporate, exceeding sixty per cent. of its paid-up share
             capital, free reserves and securities premium account or one hundred per
             cent. of its free reserves and securities premium account, whichever is
             more.
(3)   Where the giving of any loan or guarantee or providing any security or the
      acquisition under sub-section (2) exceeds the limits specified in that sub-
      section, prior approval by means of a special resolution passed at a general
      meeting shall be necessary.
(4)   The company shall disclose to the members in the financial statement the full
      particulars of the loans given, investment made or guarantee given or security
      provided and the purpose for which the loan or guarantee or security is
      proposed to be utilised by the recipient of the loan or guarantee or security.
(5)   No investment shall be made or loan or guarantee or security given by the
      company unless the resolution sanctioning it is passed at a meeting of the
      Board with the consent of all the directors present at the meeting and the prior
                                              104
      approval of the public financial institution concerned where any term loan is
      subsisting, is obtained:
      Provided that prior approval of a public financial institution shall not be required
      where the aggregate of the loans and investments so far made, the amount for
      which guarantee or security so far provided to or in all other bodies corporate,
      along with the investments, loans, guarantee or security proposed to be made
      or given does not exceed the limit as specified in sub-section (2), and there is
      no default in repayment of loan instalments or payment of interest thereon as
      per the terms and conditions of such loan to the public financial institution.
(6)   No company, which is registered under section 12 of the Securities and
      Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 and covered under such class or classes of
      companies as may be prescribed, shall take inter-corporate loan or deposits
      exceeding the prescribed limit and such company shall furnish in its financial
      statement the details of the loan or deposits.
(7)   No loan shall be given under this section at a rate of interest lower than the
      prevailing yield of one year, three year, five year or ten year Government
      Security closest to the tenor of the loan.
(8)   No company which is in default in the repayment of any deposits accepted
      before or after the commencement of this Act or in payment of interest
      thereon, shall give any loan or give any guarantee or provide any security or
      make an acquisition till such default is subsisting.
(9)   Every company giving loan or giving a guarantee or providing security or
      making an acquisition under this section shall keep a register which shall
      contain such particulars and shall be maintained in such manner as may be
      prescribed.
(10) The register referred to in sub-section (9) shall be kept at the registered office
     of the company and --
      (a)   shall be open to inspection at such office; and
      (b)   extracts may be taken therefrom by any member, and copies thereof may
            be furnished to any member of the company on payment of such fees as
            may be prescribed.
(11) Nothing contained in this section, except sub-section (1), shall apply--
      (a)   to a loan made, guarantee given or security provided by a banking
            company or an insurance company or a housing finance company in the
            ordinary course of its business or a company engaged in the business of
            financing of companies or of providing infrastructural facilities;
      (b)   to any acquisition--
            (i)   made by a non-banking financial company registered under Chapter
                  IIIB of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and whose principal
                  business is acquisition of securities:
                  Provided that exemption to non-banking financial company shall be
                  in respect of its investment and lending activities;
                                              105
            (ii)    made by a company whose principal business is the acquisition of
                    securities; of shares allotted in pursuance of clause (a) of sub-
                    section (1) of section 62.
            (iii)   made by a banking company or an insurance company or a housing
                    finance company, making acquisition of securities in the ordinary
                    course of its business.
(12) The Central Government may make rules for the purposes of this section.
(13) If a company contravenes the provisions of this section, the company shall be
     punishable with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand rupees
     but which may extend to five lakh rupees and every officer of the company who
     is in default shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend
     to two years and with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five thousand
     rupees but which may extend to one lakh rupees.
      Explanation.--For the purposes of this section,--
      (a)   the expression "investment company" means a company whose principal
            business is the acquisition of shares, debentures or other securities;
      (b)   the expression "infrastructure facilities" means the facilities specified in
            Schedule VI.
  Rules 11, 12 and 13 of the Companies( Meeting of Board and its
                       Powers) Rules, 2014
Rule.11. Loan and investment by a company under section 186 of the Act.-
(1)   Where a loan or guarantee is given or where a security has been provided by a
      company to its wholly owned subsidiary company or a joint venture company,
      or acquisition is made by a holding company, by way of subscription, purchase
      or otherwise of, the securities of its wholly owned subsidiary company, the
      requirement of sub-section (3) of section 186 shall not apply.
      Provided that the company shall disclose the details of such loans or guarantee
      or security or acquisition in the financial statement as provided under sub-
      section (4) of section 186.
(2)   For the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (11) of section 186, the
      expression "business of financing of companies" shall include, with regard to a
      Non-Banking Financial Company registered with the Reserve Bank of India,
      "business of giving of any loan to a person or providing any guaranty or security
      for due repayment of any loan availed by any person in the ordinary course of
      its business".
(3)   No company registered under section 12 of the Securities and Exchange Board
      of India Act, 1992 and also covered under such class or classes of companies
      which may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with the
      Securities and Exchange Board, shall take any inter-corporate loan or deposits,
      in excess of the limits specified under the regulations applicable to such
      company, pursuant to which it has obtained certificate of registration from the
      Securities and Exchange Board of India.


                                              106
Rule.12. Register.-
(1)   Every company giving loan or giving guarantee or providing security or making
      an acquisition of securities shall, from the date of its incorporation, maintain a
      register in Form MBP 2 and enter therein separately, the particulars of loans
      and guarantees given, securities provided and acquisitions made as aforesaid
(2)   The entries in the register shall be made chronologically in respect of each
      such transaction within seven days of making such loan or giving guarantee or
      providing security or making acquisition.
(3)   The register shall be kept at the registered office of the company and the
      register shall be preserved permanently and shall be kept in the custody of the
      company secretary of the company or any other person authorised by the
      Board for the purpose.
(4)   The entries in the register (either manual or electronic) shall be authenticated
      by the company secretary of the company or by any other person authorised by
      the Board for the purpose.
(5)   For the purpose of sub-rule (4), the register can be maintained either manually
      or in electronic mode.
(6)   The extracts from the register maintained under sub-section (9) of section 186
      may be furnished to any member of the company on payment of such fee as
      may be prescribed in the Articles of the company which shall not exceed ten
      rupees for each page.
Rule 13.Special Resolution.-
(1)   Where the aggregate of the loans and investment so far made, the amount for
      which guarantee or security so far provided to or in all other bodies corporate
      along with the investment, loan, guarantee or security proposed to be made or
      given by the Board, exceed the limits specified under section 186, no
      investment or loan shall be made or guarantee shall be given or security shall
      be provided unless previously authorised by a special resolution passed in a
      general meeting.
      Explanation.-For the purpose of this sub-rule, it is clarified that it would
      sufficient compliance if such special resolution is passed within one year from
      the date of notification of this section.
(2)   A resolution passed at a general meeting in terms of sub-section (3) of section
      186 to give any loan or guarantee or investment or providing any security or the
      acquisition under sub section (2) of section 186 shall specify the total amount
      up to which the Board of Directors are authorised to give such loan or
      guarantee, to provide such security or make such acquisition:
      Provided, that the company shall disclose to the members in the financial
      statement the full particulars in accordance with the provision of sub-section (4)
      of section 186.
Clarification with regard to section 185 and 186 of the Companies Act 2013 -
loans and advances to employees -
Ministry of Corporate Affairs vide General Circular No, 04/2015 dated 10th March,
2015 has clarified that loans and/or advances made by the companies to their

                                             107
employees, other than the managing or whole time directors (which is governed by
section 185) are not governed by the requirements of section 186 of the Companies
Act, 2013. This clarification will, however, be applicable if such loans/advances to
employees are in accordance with the conditions of service applicable to employees
and are also in accordance with the remuneration policy, in cases where such policy
is required to be formulated.




                                           108
                                                                        Appendix VI
      Text of the Companies (Cost Records and Audit) Rules, 2014
1.  Short title and commencement.- (1) These rules may be called the
Companies (cost records and audit) Rules, 2014.
(2)   They shall come into force on the date of publication in the Official Gazette.
2.    Definitions: In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires ­
(a)   "Act" means the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013);
(aa) "Central Excise Tariff Act Heading" means the heading as referred to in the
     additional notes in the first schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act,1985;
(b)   "Cost Accountant in practice" means a cost accountant as defined in clause (b)
      of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Cost and Works Accountants Act, 1959
      (23 of 1959), who holds a valid certificate of practice under sub-section (1) of
      section 6 of that Act and who is deemed to be in practice under sub-section (2)
      of section 2 thereof, and includes a firm or limited liability partnership of cost
      accountants;
(c)   "cost auditor" means a Cost Accountant in practice, as defined in clause (b),
      who is appointed by the Board;
(d) "cost audit report" means the report duly audited and signed by the cost auditor
    including attachment, annexure, qualifications or observations etc. to cost audit
    report;
(e)   "cost records" means books of account relating to utilisation of materials, labour
      and other items of cost as applicable to the production of goods or provision of
      services as provided in section 148 of the Act and these rules;
(f)   "form" means a form annexed to these rules;
(g)   "institute" means the Institute of Cost Accountants of India constituted under
      the Cost and Works Accountants Act, 1959 (23 of 1959);
(h)   all other words and expressions used in these rules but not defined, and
      defined in the Act or in the Companies (Specification of Definition Details)
      Rules, 2014 shall have the same meanings as assigned to them in the Act or in
      the said rules.
3.    Application of cost records.--For the purposes of sub-section (1) of section
148 of the Act, the class of companies, including Foreign Companies defined clause
(42) of section 2 of the Act, engaged in the production of the goods or providing
services, specified in the table below, having an overall turnover from all its products
and services of rupees thirty five crore or more during the immediately preceding
financial year, shall include cost records for such products or services in their books
of account, namely:-
Note - Readers may refer the table as given in the Rules for further details.



                                             109
4.    Applicability for cost audit.-
(1)   Every company specified in item (A) of the rule of rule 3 shall get its cost
      records audited in accordance with these rules if the overall annual turnover of
      the company from all its products and services during the immediately preeding
      financial year is rupees fifty crore or more and the aggregate turnover of the
      individual product or products or service or services for which cost records are
      required to be maintained under rule 3 is rupees twenty five crore or more.
(2)   Every company specified in item (B) of rule 3, shall get its cost records audited
      in accordance with these rules if the overall annual turnover of the company
      from all its products and services during the immediately preceding financial
      year is rupees one hundred crore or more and the aggregate turnover of the
      individual product or products or service or services for which cost records are
      required to be maintained under rule 3 is rupees thirty five crore or more.
(3)   The requirement for cost audit under these rules shall not apply to a company
      which is covered in rule 3 and ­
      (i)    whose revenue from exports, in foreign exchange, exceeds, seventy five
             percent of its total revenue; or
      (ii)   which is operating from a special economic zone.
5.    Maintenance of records.-
(1)   Every company under these rules including all units and branches thereof,
      shall, in respect of each of its financial year commencing on or after the 1st day
      of April, 2014, maintain cost records in form CRA-1.
      Provided that in case of company covered in serial numbers 12 and serial
      numbers 24 to 32 of item (B) of rule 3, the requirement under this rule shall
      apply in respect of each of its financial year commencing on or after 1st day of
      April, 2015.
(2)   The cost records referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be maintained on regular basis
      in such manner as to facilitate calculation of per unit cost of production or cost
      of operations, cost of sales and margin for each of its products and activities for
      every financial year on monthly or quarterly or half-yearly or annual basis.
(3)   The cost records shall be maintained in such manner so as to enable the
      company to exercise, as far as possible, control over the various operations
      and costs to achieve optimum economies in 110tilization of resources and
      these records shall also provide necessary data which is required to be
      furnished under these rules.
6.    Cost audit.-
(1)   The category of companies specified in rule 3 and the thresholds limits laid
      down in rule 4, shall within one hundred and eighty days of the commencement
      of every financial year, appoint a cost auditor.
(2)   Every company referred to in sub-rule (1) shall inform the cost auditor
      concerned of his or its appointment as such and file a notice of such
      appointment with the Central Government within a period of thirty days of the
                                              110
      Board meeting in which such appointment is made or within a period of one
      hundred and eighty days of the commencement of the financial year, whichever
      is earlier, through electronic mode, in form CRA-2, along with the fee as
      specified in Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014.
(3)   Every cost auditor appointed as such shall continue in such capacity till the
      expiry of one hundred and eighty days from the closure of the financial year or
      till he submits the cost audit report, for the financial year for which he has been
      appointed.
(3A) Any casual vacancy in the office of a cost auditor whether due to resignation,
     death or removal, shall be filled by the board of director within thirty days of
     occurrence of such vacancy and the company shall inform the central
     government in Form CRA-2 within thirty days of such appointment of cost
     auditor;
(4)   Every cost auditor, who conducts an audit of the cost records of a company,
      shall submit the cost audit report along with his or its reservations or
      qualifications or observations or suggestions, if any, in form CRA-3.
(5)   Every cost auditor shall forward his report to the Board of Directors of the
      company within a period of one hundred and eighty days from the closure of
      the financial year to which the report relates and the Board of Directors shall
      consider and examine such report particularly any reservation or qualification
      contained therein.
(6)   Every company covered under these rules shall, within a period of thirty days
      from the date of receipt of a copy of the cost audit report, furnish the Central
      Government with such report along with full information and explanation on
      every reservation or qualification contained therein, in form CRA-4 along with
      fees specified in the Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014.
(7)   The provisions of sub-section (12) of section 143 of the Act and the relevant
      rules made thereunder shall apply mutatis mutandis to a cost auditor during
      performance of his functions under section 148 of the Act and these rules.




                                              111
                                                                        Appendix VII
Text of Section 197 of Companies Act, 2013 and Relevant Extract of
                     the Rules and Schedule V
197. (1) The total managerial remuneration payable by a public company, to its
directors, including managing director and whole-time director, and its manager in
respect of any financial year shall not exceed eleven per cent of the net profits of that
company for that financial year computed in the manner laid down in section 198
except that the remuneration of the directors shall not be deducted from the gross
profits:
Provided that the company in general meeting may, with the approval of the Central
Government, authorise the payment of remuneration exceeding eleven per cent of
the net profits of the company, subject to the provisions of Schedule V:
Provided further that, except with the approval of the company in general meeting,--
(i)    the remuneration payable to any one managing director; or whole-time director
       or manager shall not exceed five per cent of the net profits of the company and
       if there is more than one such director remuneration shall not exceed ten per
       cent of the net profits to all such directors and manager taken together;
(ii)   the remuneration payable to directors who are neither managing directors nor
       whole-time directors shall not exceed,--
       (A)   one per cent of the net profits of the company, if there is a managing or
             whole-time director or manager;
       (B)   three per cent of the net profits in any other case.
(2) The percentages aforesaid shall be exclusive of any fees payable to directors
under sub-section (5).
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) and (2), but subject to
the provisions of Schedule V, if, in any financial year, a company has no profits or its
profits are inadequate, the company shall not pay to its directors, including any
managing or whole time director or manager, by way of remuneration any sum
exclusive of any fees payable to directors under sub-section (5) hereunder except in
accordance with the provisions of Schedule V and if it is not able to comply with such
provisions, with the previous approval of the Central Government.
(4) The remuneration payable to the directors of a company, including any
managing or whole-time director or manager, shall be determined, in accordance
with and subject to the provisions of this section, either by the articles of the
company, or by a resolution or, if the articles so require, by a special resolution,
passed by the company in general meeting and the remuneration payable to a
director determined aforesaid shall be inclusive of the remuneration payable to him
for the services rendered by him in any other capacity:
Provided that any remuneration for services rendered by any such director in other
capacity shall not be so included if--
(a)    the services rendered are of a professional nature; and

                                               112
(b)   in the opinion of the Nomination and Remuneration Committee, if the company
      is covered under sub-section (1) of section 178, or the Board of Directors in
      other cases, the director possesses the requisite qualification for the practice of
      the profession.
(5) A director may receive remuneration by way of fee for attending meetings of
the Board or Committee thereof or for any other purpose whatsoever as may be
decided by the Board:
Provided that the amount of such fees shall not exceed the amount as may be
prescribed:
Provided further that different fees for different classes of companies and fees in
respect of independent director may be such as may be prescribed.
(6) A director or manager may be paid remuneration either by way of a monthly
payment or at a specified percentage of the net profits of the company or partly by
one way and partly by the other.
(7) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act but
subject to the provisions of this section, an independent director shall not be entitled
to any stock option and may receive remuneration by way of fees provided under
sub-section (5), reimbursement of expenses for participation in the Board and other
meetings and profit related commission as may be approved by the members.
(8) The net profits for the purposes of this section shall be computed in the manner
referred to in section 198.
(9) If any director draws or receives, directly or indirectly, by way of remuneration
any such sums in excess of the limit prescribed by this section or without the prior
sanction of the Central Government, where it is required, he shall refund such sums
to the company and until such sum is refunded, hold it in trust for the company.
(10) The company shall not waive the recovery of any sum refundable to it under
sub-section (9) unless permitted by the Central Government.
(11) In cases where Schedule V is applicable on grounds of no profits or inadequate
profits, any provision relating to the remuneration of any director which purports to
increase or has the effect of increasing the amount thereof, whether the provision be
contained in the company's memorandum or articles, or in an agreement entered
into by it, or in any resolution passed by the company in general meeting or its
Board, shall not have any effect unless such increase is in accordance with the
conditions specified in that Schedule and if such conditions are not being complied,
the approval of the Central Government had been obtained.
(12) Every listed company shall disclose in the Board's report, the ratio of the
remuneration of each director to the median employee's remuneration and such
other details as may be prescribed.
(13) Where any insurance is taken by a company on behalf of its managing director,
whole-time director, manager, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or
Company Secretary for indemnifying any of them against any liability in respect of
any negligence, default, misfeasance, breach of duty or breach of trust for which


                                              113
they may be guilty in relation to the company, the premium paid on such insurance
shall not be treated as part of the remuneration payable to any such personnel:
Provided that if such person is proved to be guilty, the premium paid on such
insurance shall be treated as part of the remuneration.
(14) Subject to the provisions of this section, any director who is in receipt of any
commission from the company and who is a managing or whole-time director of the
company shall not be disqualified from receiving any remuneration or commission
from any holding company or subsidiary company of such company subject to its
disclosure by the company in the Board's report.
(15) If any person contravenes the provisions of this section, he shall be punishable
with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to five
lakh rupees.
Rule 4 and 5 of Companies (Appointment and Remuneration of Managerial
Personnel) Rules, 2014.
      Rule 4. Sitting fees.- A company may pay a sitting fee to a director for
      attending meetings of the Board or committees thereof, such sum as may be
      decided by the Board of directors thereof which shall not exceed one lakh
      rupees per meeting of the Board or committee thereof:
Provided that for Independent Directors and Women Directors, the sitting fee shall
not be less than the sitting fee payable to other directors.
      Rule 5. Disclosure in Board's report.-(1) Every listed company shall disclose
      in the Board's report-
      (i)     the ratio of the remuneration of each director to the median
              remuneration of the employees of the company for the financial year;
      (ii)    the percentage increase in remuneration of each director, Chief
              Financial Officer, Chief Executive Officer, Company Secretary or
              Manager, if any, in the financial year;
      (iii)   the percentage increase in the median remuneration of employees in the
              financial year;
      (iv)    the number of permanent employees on the rolls of company;
      (v)     the explanation on the relationship between average increase in
              remuneration and company performance;
      (vi)    comparison of the remuneration of the Key Managerial Personnel
              against the performance of the company;
      (vii) variations in the market capitalisation of the company, price earnings
            ratio as at the closing date of the current financial year and previous
            financial year and percentage increase over decrease in the market
            quotations of the shares of the company in comparison to the rate at
            which the company came out with the last public offer in case of listed
            companies, and in case of unlisted companies, the variations in the net


                                            114
                worth of the company as at the close of the current financial year and
                previous financial year;
         (viii) average percentile increase already made in the salaries of employees
                other than the managerial personnel in the last financial year and its
                comparison with the percentile increase in the managerial remuneration
                and justification thereof and point out if there are any exceptional
                circumstances for increase in the managerial remuneration;
         (ix)   comparison of the each remuneration of the Key Managerial Personnel
                against the performance of the company;
         (x)    the key parameters for any variable component of remuneration availed
                by the directors;
         (xi)   the ratio of the remuneration of the highest paid director to that of the
                employees who are not directors but receive remuneration in excess of
                the highest paid director during the year; and
         (xii) affirmation that the remuneration is as per the remuneration policy of the
                company.
Explanation.- For the purposes of this rule.- (i) the expression "median" means the
numerical value separating the higher half of a population from the lower half and the
median of a finite list of numbers may be found by arranging all the observations
from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one;
(ii)    if there is an even number of observations, the median shall be the average of
        the two middle values.
(2) The board's report shall include a statement showing the name of every
employee of the company, who-
(i)     if employed throughout the financial year, was in receipt of remuneration for
        that year which, in the aggregate, was not less than sixty lakh rupees;
(ii)    if employed for a part of the financial year, was in receipt of remuneration for
        any part of that year, at a rate which, in the aggregate, was not less than five
        lakh rupees per month;
(iii)   if employed throughout the financial year or part thereof, was in receipt of
        remuneration in that year which, in the aggregate, or as the case may be, at a
        rate which, in the aggregate, is in excess of that drawn by the managing
        director or whole-time director or manager and holds by himself or along with
        his spouse and dependent children, not less than two percent of the equity
        shares of the company.
(3)     The statement referred to in sub-rule (2) shall also indicate -
(i)     designation of the employee;
(ii)    remuneration received;
(iii)   nature of employment, whether contractual or otherwise;
(iv)    qualifications and experience of the employee;

                                                115
(v)    date of commencement of employment;
(vi)   the age of such employee;
(vii) the last employment held by such employee before joining the company;
(viii) the percentage of equity shares held by the employee in the company within
       the meaning of clause (iii) of sub-rule (2) above; and
(ix)   whether any such employee is a relative of any director or manager of the
       company and if so, name of such director or manager:
Provided that the particulars of employees posted and working in a country outside
India, not being directors or their relatives, drawing more than sixty lakh rupees per
financial year or five lakh rupees per month, as the case may be, as may be decided
by the Board, shall not be circulated to the members in the Board's report, but such
particulars shall be filed with the Registrar of Companies while filing the financial
statement and Board Reports:
Provided further that such particulars shall be made available to any shareholder on
a specific request made by him in writing before the date of such Annual General
Meeting wherein financial statements for the relevant financial year are proposed to
be adopted by shareholders and such particulars shall be made available by the
company within three days from the date of receipt of such request from
shareholders:
Provided also that, in case of request received even after the date of completion of
Annual General Meeting, such particulars shall be made available to the
shareholders, within seven days from the date of receipt of such request.
Schedule V
PART II - REMUNERATION
Section I.-- Remuneration payable by companies having profits:
Subject to the provisions of section 197, a company having profits in a financial year
may pay remuneration to a managerial person or persons not exceeding the limits
specified in such section.
Section II.-- Remuneration payable by companies having no profit or
inadequate profit without Central Government approval:
Where in any financial year during the currency of tenure of a managerial person, a
company has no profits or its profits are inadequate, it may, without Central
Government approval, pay remuneration to the managerial person not exceeding the
higher of the limits under (A) and (B) given below:--
(A):
                    (1)                                        (2)
Where the effective capital is              Limit of yearly remuneration payable
                                            shall not exceed (Rupees)
(i) Negative or less than 5 crores          30 lakhs

                                            116
(ii) 5 crores and above but less than100 42 lakhs
crores

(iii) 100 crores and above but less 60 lakhs
than250 crores
(iv) 250 crores and above                      60 lakhs plus 0.01% of the effective
                                               capital in excess of Rs. 250 crores:


Provided that the above limits shall be doubled if the resolution passed by the share
holders is a special resolution.
Explanation.--It is hereby clarified that for a period less than one year, the limits
shall be pro-rated.
(B) In the case of a managerial person who was not a security holder holding
securities of the company of nominal value of rupees five lakh or more or an
employee or a director of the company or not related to any director or promoter at
any time during the two years prior to his appointment as a managerial person, --
2.5% of the current relevant profit:
Provided that if the resolution passed by the shareholders is a special resolution, this
limit shall be doubled:
Provided further that the limits specified under this section shall apply, if--
(i)     payment of remuneration is approved by a resolution passed by the Board and,
        in the case of a company covered under sub-section (1) of section 178 also by
        the Nomination and Remuneration Committee;
(ii)    the company has not made any default in repayment of any of its debts
        (including public deposits) or debentures or interest payable thereon for a
        continuous period of thirty days in the preceding financial year before the date
        of appointment of such managerial person;
(iii)   a special resolution has been passed at the general meeting of the company
        for payment of remuneration for a period not exceeding three years;
(iv)    a statement along with a notice calling the general meeting referred to in clause
        (iii)is given to the shareholders containing the following information, namely:--
I.      General Information:
        (1)   Nature of industry
        (2)   Date or expected date of commencement of commercial production
        (3)   In case of new companies, expected date of commencement of activities
              as per project approved by financial institutions appearing in the
              prospectus
        (4)   Financial performance based on given indicators
        (5)   Foreign investments or collaborations, if any.

                                               117
II.     Information about the appointee:
        (1)   Background details
        (2)   Past remuneration
        (3)   Recognition or awards
        (4)   Job profile and his suitability
        (5)   Remuneration proposed
        (6)   Comparative remuneration profile with respect to industry, size of the
              company, profile of the position and person (in case of expatriates the
              relevant details would be with respect to the country of his origin)
        (7)   Pecuniary relationship directly or indirectly with the company, or
              relationship with the managerial personnel, if any.
III.    Other information:
        (1)   Reasons of loss or inadequate profits
        (2)   Steps taken or proposed to be taken for improvement
        (3)   Expected increase in productivity and profits in measurable terms.
IV. Disclosures:
The following disclosures shall be mentioned in the Board of Director's report under
the heading "Corporate Governance", if any, attached to the financial statement:--
(i)     all elements of remuneration package such as salary, benefits, bonuses, stock
        options, pension, etc., of all the directors;
(ii)    details of fixed component and performance linked incentives along with the
        performance criteria;
(iii)   service contracts, notice period, severance fees;
(iv)    stock option details, if any, and whether the same has been issued at a
        discount as well as the period over which accrued and over which exercisable.
Section III.-- Remuneration payable by companies having no profit or
inadequate profit without Central Government approval in certain special
circumstances:
In the following circumstances a company may, without the Central Government
approval, pay remuneration to a managerial person in excess of the amounts
provided in Section II above:--
(a) where the remuneration in excess of the limits specified in Section I or II is paid
by any other company and that other company is either a foreign company or has
got the approval of its shareholders in general meeting to make such payment, and
treats this amount as managerial remuneration for the purpose of section 197 and
the total managerial remuneration payable by such other company to its managerial
persons including such amount or amounts is within permissible limits under section
197.
                                                118
(b) where the company--
(i) is a newly incorporated company, for a period of seven years from the date of its
incorporation, or
(ii) is a sick company, for whom a scheme of revival or rehabilitation has been
ordered by the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction or National
Company Law Tribunal, for a period of five years from the date of sanction of
scheme of revival, it may pay remuneration up to two times the amount permissible
under Section II.
(c) where remuneration of a managerial person exceeds the limits in Section II but
the remuneration has been fixed by the Board for Industrial and Financial
Reconstruction or the National Company Law Tribunal:
Provided that the limits under this Section shall be applicable subject to meeting all
the conditions specified under Section II and the following additional conditions:--
(i) except as provided in para (a) of this Section, the managerial person is not
receiving remuneration from any other company;
(ii) the auditor or Company Secretary of the company or where the company has not
appointed a Secretary, a Secretary in whole-time practice, certifies that all secured
creditors and term lenders have stated in writing that they have no objection for the
appointment of the managerial person as well as the quantum of remuneration and
such certificate is filed along with the return as prescribed under sub-section (4) of
section 196.
(iii) the auditor or Company Secretary or where the company has not appointed a
secretary, a secretary in whole-time practice certifies that there is no default on
payments to any creditors, and all dues to deposit holders are being settled on time.
(d) a company in a Special Economic Zone as notified by Department of Commerce
from time to time which has not raised any money by public issue of shares or
debentures in India, and has not made any default in India in repayment of any of its
debts (including public deposits) or debentures or interest payable thereon for a
continuous period of thirty days in any financial year, may pay remuneration up to
Rs. 2,40,00,000 per annum.
Section IV.-- Perquisites not included in managerial remuneration:
1. A managerial person shall be eligible for the following perquisites which shall not
be included in the computation of the ceiling on remuneration specified in Section II
and Section III:--
(a) contribution to provident fund, superannuation fund or annuity fund to the extent
these either singly or put together are not taxable under the Income-tax Act, 1961(43
of 1961);
(b) gratuity payable at a rate not exceeding half a month's salary for each completed
year of service; and
(c) encashment of leave at the end of the tenure.



                                            119
2. In addition to the perquisites specified in paragraph 1 of this section, an expatriate
managerial person (including a non-resident Indian) shall be eligible to the following
perquisites which shall not be included in the computation of the ceiling on
remuneration specified in Section II or Section III--
(a) Children's education allowance: In case of children studying in or outside India,
an allowance limited to a maximum of Rs. 12,000 per month per child or actual
expenses incurred, whichever is less. Such allowance is admissible up to a
maximum of two children.
(b) Holiday passage for children studying outside India or family staying abroad:
Return holiday passage once in a year by economy class or once in two years by
first class to children and to the members of the family from the place of their study
or stay abroad to India if they are not residing in India, with the managerial person.
(c) Leave travel concession: Return passage for self and family in accordance with
the rules specified by the company where it is proposed that the leave be spent in
home country instead of anywhere in India.
Explanation I.-- For the purposes of Section II of this Part, "effective capital" means
the aggregate of the paid-up share capital (excluding share application money or
advances against shares); amount, if any, for the time being standing to the credit of
share premium account; reserves and surplus (excluding revaluation reserve); long-
term loans and deposits repayable after one year (excluding working capital loans,
over drafts, interest due on loans unless funded, bank guarantee, etc., and other
short-term arrangements) as reduced by the aggregate of any investments (except in
case of investment by an investment company whose principal business is
acquisition of shares, stock, debentures or other securities),accumulated losses and
preliminary expenses not written off.
Explanation II.-- (a) Where the appointment of the managerial person is made in the
year in which company has been incorporated, the effective capital shall be
calculated as on the date of such appointment;
(b) In any other case the effective capital shall be calculated as on the last date of
the financial year preceding the financial year in which the appointment of the
managerial person is made.
Explanation III.-- For the purposes of this Schedule, ``family'' means the spouse,
dependent children and dependent parents of the managerial person.
Explanation IV.-- The Nomination and Remuneration Committee while approving the
remuneration under Section II or Section III, shall--
(a) take into account, financial position of the company, trend in the industry,
appointee's qualification, experience, past performance, past remuneration, etc.;
(b) be in a position to bring about objectivity in determining the remuneration
package while striking a balance between the interest of the company and the
shareholders.




                                             120
Explanation V.-- For the purposes of this Schedule, "negative effective capital"
means the effective capital which is calculated in accordance with the provisions
contained in Explanation I of this Part is less than zero.
Explanation VI.-- For the purposes of this Schedule:--
(A) "current relevant profit" means the profit as calculated under section 198 but
without deducting the excess of expenditure over income referred to in sub-section
4(l) thereof in respect of those years during which the managerial person was not an
employee, director or shareholder of the company or its holding or subsidiary
companies.
(B) "Remuneration" means remuneration as defined in clause (78) of section 2and
includes reimbursement of any direct taxes to the managerial person.
Section V. --Remuneration payable to a managerial person in two companies:
Subject to the provisions of sections I to IV, a managerial person shall draw
remuneration from one or both companies, provided that the total remuneration
drawn from the companies does not exceed the higher maximum limit admissible
from any one of the companies of which he is a managerial person.
PART III
Provisions applicable to Parts I and II of this Schedule
1. The appointment and remuneration referred to in Part I and Part II of this
Schedule shall be subject to approval by a resolution of the shareholders in general
meeting.
2. The auditor or the Secretary of the company or where the company is not required
to appointed a Secretary, a Secretary in whole-time practice shall certify that the
requirement of this Schedule have been complied with and such certificate shall be
incorporated in the return filed with the Registrar under sub-section (4) of section
196.
PART IV
The Central Government may, by notification, exempt any class or classes of
companies from any of the requirements contained in this Schedule.




                                           121
                                                                    Appendix VIII
                           Text of Nidhi Rules 2014
1.   Short title and commencement.--(1) These Rules may be called Nidhi Rules,
2014. (2) They shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 2014.
2.   Application.--These rules shall apply to,--
     (a)   every company which had been declared as a Nidhi or Mutual Benefit
           Society under sub-section (1) of Section 620A of the Companies Act,
           1956;
     (b)   every company functioning on the lines of a Nidhi company or Mutual
           Benefit Society but has either not applied for or has applied for and is
           awaiting notification to be a Nidhi or Mutual Benefit Society under sub-
           section (1) of Section 620A of the Companies Act, 1956; and
     (c)   every company incorporated as a Nidhi pursuant to the provisions of
           Section 406 of the Act.
3.   Definitions.--(1) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires,--
     (a)   "Act" means the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013);
     (b)   "Doubtful Asset" means a borrowal account which has remained a Non-
           performing asset for more than two years but less than three years;
     (c)   "Loss Asset" means a borrowal account which has remained a Non-
           performing asset for more than three years or where in the opinion of the
           Board, a shortfall in the recovery of the loan account is expected because
           the documents executed may become invalid if subjected to legal process
           or for any other reason;
     (d)   "Net Owned Funds" means the aggregate of paid up equity share capital
           and free reserves as reduced by accumulated losses and intangible
           assets appearing in the last audited balance sheet:
           Provided that the amount representing the proceeds of issue of
           preference shares shall not be included for calculating Net Owned Funds.
     (e)   "Non-Performing Asset" means a borrowal account in respect of which
           interest income or instalment of loan towards re payment of principal
           amount has remained unrealised for twelve months;
     (f)   "Standard Asset" means the asset in respect of which no default in re-
           payment of principal or payment of interest has occurred or is perceived
           and which has neither shown signs of any problem relating to re-payment
           of principal sum or interest nor does it carry more than normal risk
           attached to the business;
     (g)   "Sub-Standard Asset" means a borrowal account which is a Non-
           performing asset:
           Provided that reschedulement or re-negotiation or re-phasement of the
           loan instalment or interest payment shall not change the classification of
                                           122
           an asset unless the borrowal account has satisfactorily performed for at
           least twelve months after such reschedulement or renegotiation or
           rephasement.
(2) Words and expressions used herein, but not defined in these rules and defined
in the Act or in the Companies (Specification of definitions details) Rules, 2014 shall
have the same meaning as assigned to them in the Act or in the said Rules.
4.   Incorporation and incidental matters.--(1) A Nidhi to be incorporated under
     the Act shall be a public company and shall have a minimum paid up equity
     share capital of five lakh rupees.
     (2)   On and after the commencement of the Act, no Nidhi shall issue
           preference shares.
     (3)   If preference shares had been issued by a Nidhi before the
           commencement of this Act, such preference shares shall be redeemed in
           accordance with the terms of issue of such shares.
     (4)   Except as provided under the proviso to sub-rule (e) to rule 6, no Nidhi
           shall have any object in its Memorandum of Association other than the
           object of cultivating the habit of thrift and savings amongst its members,
           receiving deposits from, and lending to, its members only, for their mutual
           benefit.
     (5)   Every Company incorporated as a "Nidhi" shall have the last words `Nidhi
           Limited' as part of its name.
5.   Requirements for minimum number of members, net owned fund etc.--(1)
     Every Nidhi shall, within a period of one year from the commencement of these
     rules, ensure that it has--
     (a)   not less than two hundred members;
     (b)   Net Owned Funds of ten lakh rupees or more;
     (c)   unencumbered term deposits of not less than ten per cent of the
           outstanding deposits as specified in rule 14; and
     (d)   ratio of Net Owned Funds to deposits of not more than 1:20.
     (2)   Within ninety days from the close of the first financial year after its
           incorporation and where applicable, the second financial year, Nidhi shall
           file a return of statutory compliances in Form NDH-1 along with such fee
           as provided in Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014
           with the Registrar duly certified by a company secretary in practice or a
           chartered accountant in practice or a cost accountant in practice.
     (3)   If a Nidhi is not complying with clauses (a) or (d) of sub-rule (1) above, it
           shall within thirty days from the close of the first financial year, apply to
           the Regional Director in Form NDH-2 along with fee specified in
           Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 for extension of
           time and the Regional Director may consider the application and pass
           orders within thirty days of receipt of the application.


                                             123
           Explanation.--For the purpose of this rule "Regional Director" means the
           person appointed by the Central Government in the Ministry of Corporate
           Affairs as a Regional Director;
     (4)   If the failure to comply with sub-rule (1) of this rule extends beyond the
           second financial year, Nidhi shall not accept any further deposits from the
           commencement of the second financial year till it complies with the
           provisions contained in sub-rule (1), besides being liable for penal
           consequences as provided in the Act.
6.   General restrictions or prohibitions.--No Nidhi shall--
     (a)   carry on the business of chit fund, hire purchase finance, leasing finance,
           insurance or acquisition of securities issued by any body corporate;
     (b)   issue preference shares, debentures or any other debt instrument by any
           name or in any form whatsoever;
     (c)   open any current account with its members;
     (d)   acquire another company by purchase of securities or control the
           composition of the Board of Directors of any other company in any
           manner whatsoever or enter into any arrangement for the change of its
           management, unless it has passed a special resolution in its general
           meeting and also obtained the previous approval of the Regional Director
           having jurisdiction over such Nidhi;
           Explanation.--For the purposes of this sub-rule, "control" shall have the
           same meaning assigned to it in clause (27) of section 2 of the Act;
     (e)   carry on any business other than the business of borrowing or lending in
           its own name:
           Provided that Nidhis which have adhered to all the provisions of these
           rules may provide locker facilities on rent to its members subject to the
           rental income from such facilities not exceeding twenty per cent of the
           gross income of the Nidhi at any point of time during a financial year.
     (f)   accept deposits from or lend to any person, other than its members;
     (g)   pledge any of the assets lodged by its members as security;
     (h)   take deposits from or lend money to any body corporate;
     (i)   enter into any partnership arrangement in its borrowing or lending
           activities;
     (j)   issue or cause to be issued any advertisement in any form for soliciting
           deposit:
           Provided that private circulation of the details of fixed deposit Schemes
           among the members of the Nidhi carrying the words "for private circulation
           to members only" shall not be considered to be an advertisement for
           soliciting deposits.



                                            124
      (k)   pay any brokerage or incentive for mobilising deposits from members or
            for deployment of funds or for granting loans.
7.    Share capital and allotment.--(1) Every Nidhi shall issue equity shares of the
      nominal value of not less than ten rupees each:
      Provided that this requirement shall not apply to a company referred to in sub-
      rules (a) and (b) of rule 2.
      (2)   No service charge shall be levied for issue of shares.
      (3)   Every Nidhi shall allot to each deposit holder at least a minimum of ten
            equity shares or shares equivalent to one hundred rupees:
            Provided that a savings account holder and a recurring deposit account
            holder shall hold at least one equity share of rupees ten.
8.    Membership.--(1) A Nidhi shall not admit a body corporate or trust as a
      member.
      (2)   Except as otherwise permitted under these rules, every Nidhi shall ensure
            that its membership is not reduced to less than two hundred members at
            any time.
      (3)   A minor shall not be admitted as a member of Nidhi:
            Provided that deposits may be accepted in the name of a minor, if they
            are made by the natural or legal guardian who is a member of Nidhi.
9.    Net owned funds.--Every Nidhi shall maintain Net Owned Funds (excluding
      the proceeds of any preference share capital) of not less than ten lakh rupees
      or such higher amount as the Central Government may specify from time to
      time.
10.   Branches.--(1) A Nidhi may open branches, only if it has earned net profits
      after tax continuously during the preceding three financial years.
      (2)   Subject to the provisions contained in sub-rule (1), a Nidhi may open up to
            three branches within the district.
      (3)   If a Nidhi proposes to open more than three branches within the district or
            any branch outside the district, it shall obtain the prior permission of the
            Regional Director and an intimation is to be given to the Registrar about
            opening of every branch within thirty days of such opening.
      (4)   No Nidhi shall open branches or collection centres or offices or deposit
            centres, or by whatever name called outside the State where its
            registered office is situated.
      (5)   No Nidhi shall open branches or collection centres or offices or deposit
            centres, or by whatever name called unless financial statement and
            annual return (up to date) are filed with the Registrar.
      (6)   A Nidhi shall not close any branch unless it--



                                             125
            (a)   publishes an advertisement in a newspaper in vernacular language
                  in the place where it carries on business at least thirty days prior to
                  such closure, informing the public about such closure;
            (b)   fixes a copy of such advertisement or a notice informing such
                  closure of the branch on the notice board of Nidhi for a period of at
                  least thirty days from the date on which advertisement was
                  published under clause (a) ; and
            (c)   gives an intimation to the Registrar within thirty days of such closure.
11.   Acceptance of deposits by Nidhis.--(1) A Nidhi shall not accept deposits
      exceeding twenty times of its Net Owned Funds (NOF) as per its last audited
      financial statements.
      (2)   In the case of companies covered under clauses (a) and (b) of rule 2 and
            existing on or before 26th July, 2001 and which have accepted deposits
            in excess of the aforesaid limits, the same shall be restored to the
            prescribed limit by increasing the Net Owned Funds position or
            alternatively by reducing the deposit according to the table given below:
TABLE
Ratio of Net Owned Funds to Deposits Date by which the company has to
(as on 31.3. 2013)                   achieve prescribed ceiling of 1:20
a) More than 1:20 but up to 1:35              By    31.3. 2015
b) More than 1:35 but up to 1:45              By    31.3. 2016
c) More than 1:45                             By    31.3. 2017


      (3)   The companies which are covered under the Table in sub-rule (2) above
            shall not accept fresh deposits or renew existing deposits if such
            acceptance or renewal leads to violation of the prescribed ratio.
      (4)   The ratio specified in sub-rule (2) above shall also apply to incremental
            deposits.
12.   Application form for deposit.--(1) Every application form for placing a
      deposit with a Nidhi shall contain the following particulars, namely:--
      (a)   Name of Nidhi;
      (b)   Date of incorporation of Nidhi;
      (c)   The business carried on by Nidhi with details of branches, if any;
      (d)   Brief particulars of the management of Nidhi (name, addresses and
            occupation of the directors, including DIN);
      (e)   Net profits of Nidhi before and after making provision for tax for the
            preceding three financial years;
      (f)   Dividend declared by Nidhi during the preceding three financial years;

                                              126
      (g)   Mode of repayment of the deposit;
      (h)   Maturity period of the deposit;
      (i)   Interest payable on the deposit;
      (j)   The rate of interest payable to the depositor in case the depositor
            withdraws the deposit prematurely;
      (k)   The terms and conditions subject to which the deposit may be accepted
            or renewed;
      (l)   A summary of the financials of the company as per the latest two audited
            financial statements as given below:
            (i)     Net Owned Funds
            (ii)    Deposits accepted
            (iii)   Deposits repaid
            (iv)    Deposits claimed but remaining unpaid
            (v)     Loans disbursed against--
                    (a)   immovable property;
                    (b)   deposits; and
                    (c)   gold and jewellery
            (vi)    Profit before tax
            (vii) Provision for tax
            (viii) Profit after tax
            (ix)    Dividend per share
      (m) any other special features or terms and conditions subject to which the
          deposit is accepted or renewed.
(2)   The application form shall also contain the following statements, namely:--
      (a)   in case of Non-payment of the deposit or part thereof as per the terms
            and conditions of such deposit, the depositor may approach the Registrar
            of companies having jurisdiction over Nidhi; (b) in case of any deficiency
            of Nidhi in servicing its depositors, the depositor may approach the
            National Consumers Disputes Redressal Forum, the State Consumers
            Disputes Redressal Forum or District Consumers Disputes Redressal
            Forum, as the case may be, for redressal of his relief;
      (c)   a declaration by the Board of Directors to the effect that the financial
            position of Nidhi as disclosed and the representations made in the
            application form are true and correct and that Nidhi has complied with all
            the applicable rules;
      (d)   a statement to the effect that the Central Government does not undertake
            any responsibility for the financial soundness of Nidhi or for the
                                                127
            correctness of any of the statement or the representations made or
            opinions expressed by Nidhi; (e) the deposits accepted by Nidhi are not
            insured and the repayment of deposits is not guaranteed by either the
            Central Government or the Reserve Bank of India; and (f) a verification
            clause by the depositor stating that he had read and understood the
            financial and other particulars furnished and representations made by
            Nidhi in his application form and after careful consideration he is making
            the deposit with Nidhi at his own risk and volition.
(3)   Every Nidhi shall obtain proper introduction of new depositors before opening
      their accounts or accepting their deposits and keep on its record the evidence
      on which it has relied upon for the purpose of such introduction.
(4)   For the purposes of introduction of depositors, a Nidhi shall obtain documentary
      evidence of the depositor in the form of proof of identity and address as under:
      (a)   Proof of Identity (any one of the following)
            (i)     Passport
            (ii)    Unique Identification Number
            (iii)   Income-tax PAN card
            (iv)    Elector Photo Identity Card
            (v)     Driving licence
            (vi)    Ration card
      (b)   Proof of address (any one of the following)
            (i)     Passport
            (ii)    Unique Identification Number
            (iii)   Elector Photo Identity Card
            (iv)    Driving licence
            (v)     Ration card
            (vi)    Telephone bill
            (vii) Bank account statement
            (viii) Electricity bill
            (documents referred to serial numbers (vi), (vii) and (viii) above shall not
            be more than two months old)
13.   Deposits.--(1) The fixed deposits shall be accepted for a minimum period of
      six months and a maximum period of sixty months.
      (2)   Recurring deposits shall be accepted for a minimum period of twelve
            months and a maximum period of sixty months.



                                                  128
      (3)   In case of recurring deposits relating to mortgage loans, the maximum
            period of recurring deposits shall correspond to the repayment period of
            such loans granted by Nidhi.
      (4)   The maximum balance in a savings deposit account at any given time
            qualifying for interest shall not exceed one lakh rupees at any point of
            time and the rate of interest shall not exceed two per cent above the rate
            of interest payable on savings bank account by nationalised banks.
      (5)   A Nidhi may offer interest on fixed and recurring deposits at a rate not
            exceeding the maximum rate of interest prescribed by the Reserve Bank
            of India which the Non-Banking Financial Companies can pay on their
            public deposits.
      (6)   A fixed deposit account or a recurring deposit account shall be foreclosed
            by the depositor subject to the following conditions, namely:--
            (a)   a Nidhi shall not repay any deposit within a period of three months
                  from the date of its acceptance;
            (b)   where at the request of the depositor, a Nidhi repays any deposit
                  after a period of three months, the depositor shall not be entitled to
                  any interest up to six months from the date of deposit;
            (c)   where at the request of the depositor, a Nidhi makes repayment of a
                  deposit before the expiry of the period for which such deposit was
                  accepted by Nidhi, the rate of interest payable by Nidhi on such
                  deposit shall be reduced by two per cent from the rate which Nidhi
                  would have ordinarily paid, had the deposit been accepted for the
                  period for which such deposit had run:
                  Provided that in the event of death of a depositor, the deposit may
                  be repaid prematurely to the surviving depositor or depositors in the
                  case of joint holding with survivor clause, or to the nominee or to
                  legal heir with interest up to the date of repayment at the rate which
                  the company would have ordinarily paid, had such deposit been
                  accepted for the period for which such deposit had run.
14.   Un-encumbered term deposits.--Every Nidhi shall invest and continue to
      keep invested, in unencumbered term deposits with a Scheduled commercial
      bank (other than a co-operative bank or a regional rural bank), or post office
      deposits in its own name an amount which shall not be less than ten per cent of
      the deposits outstanding at the close of business on the last working day of the
      second preceding month:
      Provided that in cases of unforeseen commitments, temporary withdrawal may
      be permitted with the prior approval of the Regional Director for the purpose of
      repayment to depositors, subject to such conditions and time limit which may
      be specified by the Regional Director to ensure restoration of the prescribed
      limit of ten per cent.
15.   Loans.--(1) A Nidhi shall provide loans only to its members.


                                              129
(2)   The loans given by a Nidhi to a member shall be subject to the following limits,
      namely:--
      (a)   two lakh rupees, where the total amount of deposits of such Nidhi from its
            members is less than two crore rupees;
      (b)   seven lakh fifty thousand rupees, where the total amount of deposits of
            such Nidhi from its members is more than two crore rupees but less than
            twenty crore rupees;
      (c)   twelve lakh rupees, where the total amount of deposits of such Nidhi from
            its members is more than twenty crore rupees but less than fifty crore
            rupees; and
      (d)   fifteen lakh rupees, where the total amount of deposits of such Nidhi from
            its members is more than fifty crore rupees:
            Provided that where a Nidhi has not made profits continuously in the three
            preceding financial years, it shall not make any fresh loans exceeding fifty
            per cent of the maximum amounts of loans specified in clauses (a), (b),
            (c) or (d).
            Provided further that,a member shall not be eligible for any further loan if
            he has borrowed any earlier loan from the Nidhi and has defaulted in
            repayment of such loan.
(3)   For the purposes of sub-rule (2), the amount of deposits shall be calculated on
      the basis of the last audited annual financial statements.
(4)   A Nidhi shall give loans to its members only against the following securities,
      namely:--
      (a)   gold, silver and jewellery:
            Provided that the re-payment period of such loan shall not exceed one
            year.
      (b)   immovable property:
            Provided that the total loans against immovable property [excluding
            mortgage loans granted on the security of property by registered
            mortgage, being a registered mortgage under section 69 of the Transfer
            of Property Act, 1882 (IV of 1882)] shall not exceed fifty per cent of the
            overall loan outstanding on the date of approval by the board, the
            individual loan shall not exceed fifty per cent of the value of property
            offered as security and the period of repayment of such loan shall not
            exceed seven years.


      (c)   fixed deposit receipts, National Savings Certificates, other Government
            Securities and insurance policies:
            Provided that such securities duly discharged shall be pledged with Nidhi
            and the maturity date of such securities shall not fall beyond the loan
            period or one year whichever is earlier:

                                             130
            Provided further that in the case of loan against fixed deposits, the period
            of loan shall not exceed the unexpired period of the fixed deposits.
16.   Rate of interest.--The rate of interest to be charged on any loan given by a
      Nidhi shall not exceed seven and half per cent above the highest rate of
      interest offered on deposits by Nidhi and shall be calculated on reducing
      balance method:
      Provided that Nidhi shall charge the same rate of interest on the borrowers in
      respect of the same class of loans and the rates of interest of all classes of
      loans shall be prominently displayed on the notice board at the registered office
      and each branch office of Nidhi.
17.   Rules relating to Directors.--(1) The Director shall be a member of Nidhi.
      (2)   The Director of a Nidhi shall hold office for a term up to ten consecutive
            years on the Board of Nidhi.
      (3)   The Director shall be eligible for re-appointment only after the expiration
            of two years of ceasing to be a Director.
      (4)   Where the tenure of any Director in any case had already been extended
            by the Central Government, it shall terminate on expiry of such extended
            tenure.
      (5)   The person to be appointed as a Director shall comply with the
            requirements of sub-section (4) of Section 152 of the Act and shall not
            have been disqualified from appointment as provided in section 164 of the
            Act.
18.   Dividend.- A Nidhi shall not declare dividend exceeding twenty five per cent or
      such higher amount as may be specifically approved by the Regional Director
      for reasons to be recorded in writing and further subject to the following
      conditions, namely:--
      (a)   an equal amount is transferred to General Reserve;
      (b)   there has been no default in repayment of matured deposits and interest;
            and
      (c)   it has complied with all the rules as applicable to Nidhis.
19.   Auditor.--(1) No Nidhi shall appoint or re-appoint an individual as auditor for
      more than one term of five consecutive years.
      (2)   No Nidhi shall appoint or re-appoint an audit firm as auditor for more than
            two terms of five consecutive years: Provided that an auditor (whether an
            individual or an audit firm) shall be eligible for subsequent appointment
            after the expiration of two years from the completion of his or its term:
            Explanation: For the purposes of this proviso:
            (i)   in case of an auditor (whether an individual or audit firm), the period
                  for which he or it has been holding office as auditor prior to the
                  commencement of these rules shall be taken into account in

                                              131
                   calculating the period of five consecutive years or ten consecutive
                   years, as the case may be;
            (ii)   appointment includes re-appointment.
20.   Prudential norms.--(1) Every Nidhi shall adhere to the prudential norms for
      revenue recognition and classification of assets in respect of mortgage loans or
      jewel loans as contained hereunder.
      (2)   Income including interest or any other charges on non-performing assets
            shall be recognised only when it is actually realised and any such income
            recognised before the asset became non-performing and which remains
            unrealised in a year shall be reversed in the profit and loss account of the
            immediately succeeding year.
      (3)   (a) In respect of mortgage loans, the classification of assets and the
            provisioning required shall be as under:
            NATURE OF ASSET                   PROVISION REQUIRED
            Standard Asset                    No provision
            Sub-standard Asset                10% of      the   aggregate    outstanding
                                              amount
            Doubtful Asset                    25% of      the   aggregate    outstanding
                                              amount
            Loss Asset                        100% of the aggregate outstanding
                                              amount


            Provided that a Nidhi may make provision for exceeding the percentage
            specific herein.
            (b)    The estimated realisable value of the collateral security to which a
                   Nidhi has valid recourse may be reduced from the aggregate
                   outstanding amount, if the proceedings for the sale of the mortgaged
                   property have been initiated in a court of law within the previous two
                   years of the interest, income or instalment remaining unrealised.
      (4)   In case of companies which were incorporated on or before 26-07-2001,
            such companies shall make provisions in respect of loans disbursed and
            outstanding as on 31-03-2002 for income reversal and non-performing
            assets as per table given below:
             For the year ended               Extent of provision
             31-03-2015                       Un-provided balance on equal basis over
                                              the three years as specified in the
             31-03-2016                       preceding column.
             31-03-2017



                                               132
      (5)   (a)     The Notes on the financial statements of a year shall disclose-
            (i)     the total amount of provisions, if any, to be made on account of
                    income reversal and non-performing assets remaining unrealised;
            (ii)    the cumulative amount provided till the previous year;
            (iii)   the amount provided in the current year; and
            (iv)    the balance amount to be provided.
            (b)     Such disclosure shall continue to be made until the entire amount to
                    be provided has been provided for.
      (6)   In respect of loans against gold or jewellery--
            (a)     the aggregate amount of loan outstanding against the security of
                    gold or jewellery shall either be recovered or renewed within three
                    months from the due date of repayment;
            (b)     if the loan is not recovered or renewed and the security is not sold
                    within the aforesaid period of three months, the company shall make
                    provision in the current year's financial statements to the extent of
                    unrealised amount or the aggregate outstanding amount of loan
                    including interest as applicable;
            (c)     no income shall be recognised on such loans outstanding after the
                    expiry of the three months period specified in (a) above or sale of
                    gold or jewellery, whichever is earlier; and
            (d)     the loan to value ratio shall not exceed 80 per cent.
            Explanation.- For the purposes of this rule, the term `loan to value ratio'
            means the ratio between the amount of loan given and the value of gold
            or jewellery against which such loan is given.
21.   Filing of half yearly return.--Every company covered under rule 2 shall file
      half yearly return with the Registrar in Form NDH-3 along with such fee as
      provided in Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 within
      thirty days from the conclusion of each half year duly certified by a company
      secretary in practice or chartered accountant in practice or cost accountant in
      practice.
22.   Auditor's certificate.--The Auditor of the company shall furnish a certificate
      every year to the effect that the company has complied with all the provisions
      contained in the rules and such certificate shall be annexed to the audit report
      and in case of non-compliance, he shall specifically state the rules which have
      not been complied with.
23.   Power to enforce compliance.--(1) For the purposes of enforcing compliance
      with these rules, the Registrar of companies may call for such information or
      returns from Nidhi as he deems necessary and may engage the services of
      chartered accountants, company secretaries in practice, cost accountants, or
      any firm thereof from time to time for assisting him in the discharge of his
      duties.

                                                133
      (2)   In respect of any Nidhi which has violated these rules or has failed to
            function in terms of the Memorandum and Articles of Association, the
            concerned Regional Director may appoint a Special Officer to take over
            the management of Nidhi and such Special Officer shall function as per
            the guidelines given by such Regional Director:
            Provided that an opportunity of being heard shall be given to the
            concerned Nidhi by the Regional Director before appointing any Special
            Officer.
24.   Penalty for non-compliance.- If a company falling under rule 2 contravenes
      any of the provisions of the rules prescribed herein, the company and every
      officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may
      extend to five thousand rupees, and where the contravention is a continuing
      one, with a further fine which may extend to five hundred rupees for every day
      after the first during which the contravention continues.




                                            134
                                                                                                Appendix IX
                  Text of Section 42 of the Companies Act, 2013
42. Offer or invitation for subscription of securities on private placement13.
(1)    Without prejudice to the provisions of section 26, a company may, subject to
       the provisions of this section, make private placement through issue of a
       private placement offer letter.
(2)    Subject to sub-section (1), the offer of securities or invitation to subscribe
       securities, shall be made to such number of persons not exceeding fifty or
       such higher number as may be prescribed, [excluding qualified institutional
       buyers and employees of the company being offered securities under a
       scheme of employees stock option as per provisions of clause (b) of sub-
       section (1) of section 62], in a financial year and on such conditions (including
       the form and manner of private placement) as may be prescribed.
       Explanation I.--If a company, listed or unlisted, makes an offer to allot or
       invites subscription, or allots, or enters into an agreement to allot, securities to
       more than the prescribed number of persons, whether the payment for the
       securities has been received or not or whether the company intends to list its
       securities or not on any recognised stock exchange in or outside India, the
       same shall be deemed to be an offer to the public and shall accordingly be
       governed by the provisions of Part I of this Chapter.
        Explanation II.-- For the purposes of this section, the expression--
       (i)     "qualified institutional buyer'' means the qualified institutional buyer as
               defined in the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Issue of Capital
               and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2009 as amended from time
               to time.
       (ii)    "private placement" means any offer of securities or invitation to subscribe
               securities to a select group of persons by a company (other than by way
               of public offer) through issue of a private placement offer letter and which
               satisfies the conditions specified in this section.
(3)    No fresh offer or invitation under this section shall be made unless the
       allotments with respect to any offer or invitation made earlier have been
       completed or that offer or invitation has been withdrawn or abandoned by the
       company.
(4)    Any offer or invitation not in compliance with the provisions of this section shall
       be treated as a public offer and all provisions of this Act, and the Securities
       Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 and the Securities and Exchange Board of
       India Act, 1992 shall be required to be complied with.
(5)    All monies payable towards subscription of securities under this section shall
       be paid through cheque or demand draft or other banking channels but not by
       cash.
13
  Ministry of Corporate Affairs vide its notification no. GSR 465(E) dated 5th June,2015 has specified that
Section 42 except sub-section (l), explanation (ll) to sub-section (2), sub-sections (4), (6), (t), (9) and (10) shall
not apply Nidhis.
                                                            135
(6)   A company making an offer or invitation under this section shall allot its
      securities within sixty days from the date of receipt of the application money for
      such securities and if the company is not able to allot the securities within that
      period, it shall repay the application money to the subscribers within fifteen
      days from the date of completion of sixty days and if the company fails to
      repay the application money within the aforesaid period, it shall be liable to
      repay that money with interest at the rate of twelve per cent. per annum from
      the expiry of the sixtieth day:
      Provided that monies received on application under this section shall be kept in
      a separate bank account in a scheduled bank and shall not be utilised for any
      purpose other than--
      (a)   for adjustment against allotment of securities; or
      (b)   for the repayment of monies where the company is unable to allot
            securities.
(7)   All offers covered under this section shall be made only to such persons whose
      names are recorded by the company prior to the invitation to subscribe, and
      that such persons shall receive the offer by name, and that a complete record
      of such offers shall be kept by the company in such manner as may be
      prescribed and complete information about such offer shall be filed with the
      Registrar within a period of thirty days of circulation of relevant private
      placement offer letter.
(8)   No company offering securities under this section shall release any public
      advertisements or utilise any media, marketing or distribution channels or
      agents to inform the public at large about such an offer.
(9)   Whenever a company makes any allotment of securities under this section, it
      shall file with the Registrar a return of allotment in such manner as may be
      prescribed, including the complete list of all security-holders, with their full
      names, addresses, number of securities allotted and such other relevant
      information as may be prescribed.
(10) If a company makes an offer or accepts monies in contravention of this section,
     the company, its promoters and directors shall be liable for a penalty which
     may extend to the amount involved in the offer or invitation or two crore rupees,
     whichever is higher, and the company shall also refund all monies to
     subscribers within a period of thirty days of the order imposing the penalty.




                                              136
                                                                          Appendix X
  Rule 14 of the Companies (Prospectus & Allotment of Securities)
                           Rules, 2014
      Rule 14 of The Companies (Prospectus and Allotment of Securities)
           Rules, 2014, as amended by notification dated 30.6.2014
14. Private Placement.--
(1)   (a) For the purposes of sub-section (1) of section 42, a company may make an
      offer or invitation to subscribe to securities through issue of a private placement
      offer letter in Form PAS-4.
      (b) A private placement offer letter shall be accompanied by an application
      form serially numbered and addressed specifically to the person to whom the
      offer is made and shall be sent to him, either in writing or in electronic mode,
      within thirty days of recording the names of such persons in accordance with
      sub-section (7) of section 42:
      Provided that no person other than the person so addressed in the application
      form shall be allowed to apply through such application form and any
      application not conforming to this condition shall be treated as invalid.
(2)   A company shall not make a private placement of its securities unless ­
      (a) the proposed offer of securities or invitation to subscribe securities has
      been previously approved by the shareholders of the company, by a Special
      Resolution, for each of the Offers or Invitations:
      Provided that in the explanatory statement annexed to the notice for the
      general meeting the basis or justification for the price (including premium, if
      any) at which the offer or invitation is being made shall be disclosed:
      Provided further that in case of offer or invitation for non-convertible
      debentures, it shall be sufficient if the company passes a previous special
      resolution only once in a year for all the offers or invitation for such debentures
      during the year.
      Provided also that in case of an offer or invitation for non convertible
      debenture referred to in the second proviso, made within a period of six months
      from the date of commencement of these rules, the special resolution referred
      to in the second proviso may be passed within the said period of six months
      from the date of commencement of these rules.
      (b) such offer or invitation shall be made to not more than two hundred
      persons in the aggregate in a financial year:
      Provided that any offer or invitation made to qualified institutional buyers, or to
      employees of the company under a scheme of employees stock option as per
      provisions of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 62 shall not be considered
      while calculating the limit of two hundred persons;
      Explanation.­ For the purposes of this sub-rule, it is hereby clarified that ­


                                              137
      (i)     the restrictions under sub-clause (b) would be reckoned individually for
              each kind of security that is equity share, preference share or debenture;
      (ii)    the requirement of provisions of sub-section (3) of section 42 shall apply
              in respect of offer or invitation of each kind of security and no offer or
              invitation of another kind of security shall be made unless allotments with
              respect to offer or invitation made earlier in respect of any other kind of
              security is completed;
      (c) the value of such offer or invitation per person shall be with an investment
      size of not less than twenty thousand rupees of face value of the securities;
      (d) the payment to be made for subscription to securities shall be made from
      the bank account of the person subscribing to such securities and the company
      shall keep the record of the Bank account from where such payments for
      subscriptions have been received:
      Provided that monies payable on subscription to securities to be held by joint
      holders shall be paid from the bank account of the person whose name
      appears first in the application.
(3)   The company shall maintain a complete record of private placement offers in
      Form PAS-5:
      Provided that a copy of such record along with the private placement offer letter
      in Form PAS-4 shall be filed with the Registrar with fee as provided in
      Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 and where the
      company is listed, with the Securities and Exchange Board within a period of
      thirty days of circulation of the private placement offer letter.
      Explanation.- For the purpose of this rule, it is hereby clarified that the date of
      private placement offer letter shall be deemed to be the date of circulation of
      private placement offer letter.
(4)   A return of allotment of securities under section 42 shall be filed with the
      Registrar within thirty days of allotment in Form PAS-3 and with the fee as
      provided in the Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 along
      with a complete list of all security holders containing-
      (i)     the full name, address, Permanent Account Number and E-mail ID of
              such security holder;
      (ii)    the class of security held;
      (iii)   the date of allotment of security ;
      (iv)    the number of securities held, nominal value and amount paid on such
              securities; and particulars of consideration received if the securities were
              issued for consideration other than cash.
(5)   The provisions of clauses (b) and (c) of sub-rule (2) shall not be applicable to ­
      (a)     non-banking financial companies which are registered with the Reserve
              Bank of India under Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934; and
      (b)     housing finance companies which are registered with the National
                                                    138
Housing Bank under National Housing Bank Act, 1987,
if they are complying with regulations made by Reserve Bank of India or
National Housing Bank in respect of offer or invitation to be issued on
private placement basis:
Provided that such companies shall comply with sub-clauses (b) and (c)
of sub-rule (2) in case the Reserve Bank of India or the National Housing
Bank have not specified similar regulations.




                                 139
                                                                         Appendix XI
      Text of Section 45-IA of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934
45-IA. Requirement of Registration and Net Owned Fund
(1)   Notwithstanding anything contained in this Chapter or in any other law for the
      time being in force, no non-banking financial company shall commence or carry
      on the business of a non-banking financial institution without­
      (a)    obtaining a certificate of registration issued under this Chapter; and
      (b)    having the net owned fund of twenty-five lakh rupees or such other
             amount, not exceeding two hundred lakh rupees, (Rs. 200 Lakhs since
             April 1999) as the Bank may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
             specify.
(2)   Every non-banking financial company shall make an application for registration
      to the Bank in such form as the Bank may specify:
      Provided that a non-banking financial company in existence on the
      commencement of the Reserve Bank of India (Amendment) Act, 1997 shall
      make an application for registration to the Bank before the expiry of six months
      from such commencement and notwithstanding anything contained in sub-
      section (1) may continue to carry on the business of a non-banking financial
      institution until a certificate of registration is issued to it or rejection of
      application for registration is communicated to it.
(3)   Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a non-banking financial
      company in existence on the commencement of the Reserve Bank of India
      (Amendment) Act, 1997 and having a net owned fund of less than twenty-five
      lakh rupees may, for the purpose of enabling such company to fulfil the
      requirement of the net owned fund, continue to carry on the business of a non-
      banking financial institution­
      (i)    for a period of three years from such commencement; or
      (ii)   for such further period as the Bank may, after recording the reasons in
             writing for so doing, extend, subject to the condition that such company
             shall, within three months of fulfilling the requirement of the net owned
             fund, inform the Bank about such fulfilment:
      Provided that the period allowed to continue business under this subsection
      shall in no case exceed six years in the aggregate.
(4)   The Bank may, for the purpose of considering the application for registration,
      require to be satisfied by an inspection of the books of the non banking
      financial company or otherwise that the following conditions are fulfilled:­
      (a)    that the non-banking financial company is or shall be in a position to pay
             its present or future depositors in full as and when their claims accrue;
      (b)    that the affairs of the non-banking financial company are not being or are
             not likely to be conducted in a manner detrimental to the interest of its
             present or future depositors;

                                              140
      (c)      that the general character of the management or the proposed
               management of the non-banking financial company shall not be
               prejudicial to the public interest or the interest of its depositors;
      (d)      that the non-banking financial company has adequate capital structure
               and earning prospects;
      (e)      that the public interest shall be served by the grant of certificate of
               registration to the non-banking financial company to commence or to
               carry on the business in India;
      (f)      that the grant of certificate of registration shall not be prejudicial to the
               operation and consolidation of the financial sector consistent with
               monetary stability, economic growth and considering such other relevant
               factors which the Bank may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
               specify; and
      (g)      any other condition, fulfilment of which in the opinion of the Bank, shall
               be necessary to ensure that the commencement of or carrying on of the
               business in India by a non-banking financial company shall not be
               prejudicial to the public interest or in the interest of the depositors.
(5)   The Bank may, after being satisfied that the conditions specified in subsection
      (4) are fulfilled, grant a certificate of registration subject to such conditions
      which it may consider fit to impose.
(6)   The Bank may cancel a certificate of registration granted to a non-banking
      financial company under this section if such company­
      (i)      ceases to carry on the business of a non-banking financial institution in
               India; or
      (ii)     has failed to comply with any condition subject to which the certificate of
               registration had been issued to it; or
      (iii)    at any time fails to fulfil any of the conditions referred to in clauses (a) to
               (g) of sub-section (4); or
      (iv)     fails­
              (a)   to comply with any direction issued by the Bank under the provisions
                    of this chapter; or
              (b)   to maintain accounts in accordance with the requirements of any law
                    or any direction or order issued by the Bank under the provisions of
                    this Chapter; or
              (c)   to submit or offer for inspection its books of account and other
                    relevant documents when so demanded by an inspecting authority
                    of the Bank; or
      (v)      has been prohibited from accepting deposit by an order made by the
               Bank under the provisions of this Chapter and such order has been in
               force for a period of not less than three months:





                                                 141
      Provided that before cancelling a certificate of registration on the ground that
      the non-banking financial company has failed to comply with the provisions of
      clause (ii) or has failed to fulfil any of the conditions referred to in clause (iii) the
      Bank, unless it is of the opinion that the delay in cancelling the certificate of
      registration shall be prejudicial to public interest or the interest of the depositors
      or the non-banking financial company, shall give an opportunity to such
      company on such terms as the Bank may specify for taking necessary steps to
      comply with such provision or fulfillment of such condition;
      Provided further that before making any order of cancellation of certificate of
      registration, such company shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being
      heard.
(7)   A company aggrieved by the order of rejection of application for registration or
      cancellation of certificate of registration may prefer an appeal, within a period of
      thirty days from the date on which such order of rejection or cancellation is
      communicated to it, to the Central Government and the decision of the Central
      Government where an appeal has been preferred to it, or of the Bank where no
      appeal has been preferred, shall be final:
      Provided that before making any order of rejection of appeal, such company
      shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
      Explanation.­ For the purposes of this section,­
      (I)    "net owned fund" means­
            (a)   the aggregate of the paid-up equity capital and free reserves as
                  disclosed in the latest balance-sheet of the company after deducting
                  therefrom­
                  (i)   accumulated balance of loss;
                  (ii) deferred revenue expenditure; and
                  (iii) other intangible assets; and
            (b)   further reduced by the amounts representing­
             (1) investments of such company in shares of­
                  (i)     its subsidiaries;
                  (ii)    companies in the same group;
                  (iii)   all other non-banking financial companies; and
            (2)   the book value of debentures, bonds, outstanding loans and
                  advances (including hire-purchase and lease finance) made to, and
                  deposits with,­
                  (i) subsidiaries of such company; and
                  (ii)companies in the same group, to the extent such amount
                      exceeds ten per cent of (a) above.
      (II) "subsidiaries" and "companies in the same group" shall have the same
      meanings assigned to them in the Companies Act, 1956.


                                                142
                                                                       Appendix XII
             Text of sections 73 to 76 of the Companies Act, 2013
Prohibition on acceptance of deposits from public
73. (1) On and after the commencement of this Act, no company shall invite, accept
      or renew deposits under this Act from the public except in a manner provided
      under this Chapter:
      Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to a banking company and
      non banking financial company as defined in the Reserve Bank of India Act,
      1934 and to such other company as the Central Government may, after
      consultation with the Reserve Bank of India, specify in this behalf.
(2)   A company may, subject to the passing of a resolution in general meeting and
      subject to such rules as may be prescribed in consultation with the Reserve
      Bank of India, accept deposits from its members on such terms and conditions,
      including the provision of security, if any, or for the repayment of such deposits
      with interest, as may be agreed upon between the company and its members,
      subject to the fulfilment of the following conditions, namely:--
(a)   issuance of a circular to its members including therein a statement showing the
      financial position of the company, the credit rating obtained, the total number of
      depositors and the amount due towards deposits in respect of any previous
      deposits accepted by the company and such other particulars in such form and
      in such manner as may be prescribed;
(b)   filing a copy of the circular along with such statement with the Registrar within
      thirty days before the date of issue of the circular;
(c)   depositing such sum which shall not be less than fifteen per cent of the amount
      of its deposits maturing during a financial year and the financial year next
      following, and kept in a scheduled bank in a separate bank account to be called
      as deposit repayment reserve account;
(d)   providing such deposit insurance in such manner and to such extent as maybe
      prescribed;
(e)   certifying that the company has not committed any default in the repayment of
      deposits accepted either before or after the commencement of this Act or
      payment of interest on such deposits; and
(f)   providing security, if any for the due repayment of the amount of deposit or the
      interest thereon including the creation of such charge on the property or assets
      of the company:
Provided that in case where a company does not secure the deposits or secures
such deposits partially, then, the deposits shall be termed as ``unsecured deposits'
and shall be so quoted in every circular, form, advertisement or in any document
related to invitation or acceptance of deposits.
(3)   Every deposit accepted by a company under sub-section (2) shall be repaid
      with interesting accordance with the terms and conditions of the agreement
      referred to in that sub-section.
                                             143
(4)   Where a company fails to repay the deposit or part thereof or any interest
      thereon under sub-section (3), the depositor concerned may apply to the
      Tribunal for an order directing the company to pay the sum due or for any loss
      or damage incurred by him as a result of such non-payment and for such other
      orders as the Tribunal may deem fit.
(5)   The deposit repayment reserve account referred to in clause (c) of sub-section
      (2) shall not be used by the company for any purpose other than repayment of
      deposits.
Repayment of deposits, etc., accepted before commencement of this Act
74. (1) Where in respect of any deposit accepted by a company before the
     commencement of this Act, the amount of such deposit or part thereof or any
     interest due thereon remains unpaid on such commencement or becomes due
     at any time thereafter, the company shall--
      (a)   file, within a period of three months from such commencement or from the
            date on which such payments, are due, with the Registrar a statement of
            all the deposits accepted by the company and sums remaining unpaid on
            such amount with the interest payable thereon along with the
            arrangements made for such repayment, notwithstanding anything
            contained in any other law for the time being in force or under the terms
            and conditions subject to which the deposit was accepted or any scheme
            framed under any law; and
      (b)   repay within one year from such commencement or from the date on
            which such payments are due, whichever is earlier.
(2)   The Tribunal may on an application made by the company, after considering
      the financial condition of the company, the amount of deposit or part thereof
      and the interest payable thereon and such other matters, allow further time as
      considered reasonable to the company to repay the deposit.
(3)   If a company fails to repay the deposit or part thereof or any interest thereon
      within the time specified in sub-section (1) or such further time as may be
      allowed by the Tribunal under sub-section (2), the company shall, in addition to
      the payment of the amount of deposit or part thereof and the interest due, be
      punishable with fine which shall not be less than one crore rupees but which
      may extend to ten crore rupees and every officer of the company who is in
      default shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven
      years or with fine which shall not be less than twenty-five lakh rupees but which
      may extend to two crore rupees, or with both.
Damages for fraud
75. (1) Where a company fails to repay the deposit or part thereof or any interest
     thereon referred to in section 74 within the time specified in sub-section (1) of
     that section or such further time as may be allowed by the Tribunal under sub-
     section (2) of that section, and it is proved that the deposits had been accepted
     with intent to defraud the depositors or for any fraudulent purpose, every officer
     of the company who was responsible for the acceptance of such deposit shall,
     without prejudice to the provisions contained in subsection(3) of that section

                                             144
      and liability under section 447, be personally responsible, without any limitation
      of liability, for all or any of the losses or damages that may have been incurred
      by the depositors.
(2)   Any suit, proceedings or other action may be taken by any person, group of
      persons or any association of persons who had incurred any loss as a result of
      the failure of the company to repay the deposits or part thereof or any interest
      thereon.
Acceptance of deposits from Public by certain companies
76. (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 73, a public company, having
      such net worth or turnover as may be prescribed, may accept deposits from
      persons other than its members subject to compliance with the requirements
      provided in sub-section (2) of section 73 and subject to such rules as the
      Central Government may, in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India,
      prescribe:
      Provided that such a company shall be required to obtain the rating (including
      its net worth, liquidity and ability to pay its deposits on due date) from a
      recognised credit rating agency for informing the public the rating given to the
      company at the time of invitation of deposits from the public which ensures
      adequate safety and the rating shall be obtained for every year during the
      tenure of deposits:
      Provided further that every company accepting secured deposits from the
      public shall within thirty days of such acceptance, create a charge on its assets
      of an amount not less than the amount of deposits accepted in favour of the
      deposit holders in accordance with such rules as may be prescribed.
(2)   The provisions of this Chapter shall, mutatis mutandis, apply to the acceptance
      of deposits from public under this section.




                                             145
                                                                            Appendix XIII
      Text of the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014
1.   Short title, commencement and application.- (1) These rules may be called
the Companies (Acceptance of Deposits) Rules, 2014.
(2)   They shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 2014.
(3)   These rules shall apply to a company other than ­
      (i)     a banking company;
      (ii)    a non-banking financial company as defined in the Reserve Bank of India
              Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) registered with the Reserve Bank of India;
      (iii)   a housing finance company registered with the National Housing Bank
              established under the National Housing Bank Act, 1987 (53 of 1987); and
      (iv)    a company specified by the Central Government under the proviso to sub-
              section (1) of section 73 of the Act.
2. Definitions.- (1) In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires, ___
      (a)     "Act" means the Companies Act, 2013 (18 of 2013);
      (b)     "Annexure" means the Annexure attached to these rules;
      (c)     "deposit" includes any receipt of money by way of deposit or loan or in
              any other form, by a company, but does not include ­
              (i)     any amount received from the Central Government or a State
                      Government, or any amount received from any other source whose
                      repayment is guaranteed by the Central Government or a State
                      Government, or any amount received from a local authority, or any
                      amount received from a statutory authority constituted under an Act
                      of Parliament or a State Legislature ;
              (ii)    any amount received from foreign Governments, foreign or
                      international banks, multilateral financial institutions (including, but
                      not limited to, International Finance Corporation, Asian Development
                      Bank, Commonwealth Development Corporation and International
                      Bank for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction), foreign
                      Governments owned development financial institutions, foreign
                      export credit agencies, foreign collaborators, foreign bodies
                      corporate and foreign citizens, foreign authorities or persons
                      resident outside India subject to the provisions of Foreign Exchange
                      Management Act, 1999 (42 of 1999) and rules and regulations made
                      there under;
              (iii)   any amount received as a loan or facility from any banking company
                      or from the State Bank of India or any of its subsidiary banks or from
                      a banking institution notified by the Central Government under
                      section 51 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949), or a
                      corresponding new bank as defined in clause (d) of section 2 of the

                                                  146
       Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act,
       1970 (5 of 1970) or in clause (b) of section (2) of the Banking
       Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1980 (40
       of 1980) , or from a co-operative bank as defined in clause (b-ii) of
       section 2 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) ;
(iv)   any amount received as a loan or financial assistance from Public
       Financial Institutions notified by the Central Government in this
       behalf in consultation with the Reserve Bank of India or any regional
       financial institutions or Insurance Companies or Scheduled Banks as
       defined in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);
(v)    any amount received against issue of commercial paper or any other
       instruments issued in accordance with the guidelines or notification
       issued by the Reserve Bank of India;
(vi)   any amount received by a company from any other company;
(vii) any amount received and held pursuant to an offer made in
      accordance with the provisions of the Act towards subscription to
      any securities, including share application money or advance
      towards allotment of securities pending allotment, so long as such
      amount is appropriated only against the amount due on allotment of
      the securities applied for;
       Explanation.- For the purposes of this sub-clause, it is hereby
       clarified that ­
       (a)   Without prejudice to any other liability or action, if the securities
             for which application money or advance for such securities was
             received cannot be allotted within sixty days from the date of
             receipt of the application money or advance for such securities
             and such application money or advance is not refunded to the
             subscribers within fifteen days from the date of completion of
             sixty days, such amount shall be treated as a deposit under
             these rules.
             "Provided that unless otherwise required under the Companies
             Act, 1956 (l of 1956) or the Securities and Exchange Board of
             India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992) or rules or regulations made there
             under to allot any share, stock, bond, or debenture within a
             specified period, if a company had received any amount by
             way of subscriptions to any shares, stock, bonds or debentures
             before the 1st April,2014 and disclosed it in the balance sheet
             for the financial year ending on or before the 31st March, 2014
             against which the allotment is pending on the 3lst March, 2015,
             the company shall, by the 1st June 2015, either return such
             amounts to the persons from whom these were received or
             allot shares, stock, bonds or debentures or comply with these
             rules."
       (b)   any adjustment of the amount for any other purpose shall not
             be treated as refund.
                                     147
(viii) any amount received from a person who, at the time of the receipt of
       the amount, was a director of the company: or a relative of the
       director of the private company
       Provided that the director of the company or relative of the director
       of the private company, as the case may be from whom money is
       received, furnished, to the company at the time of giving the money,
       a declaration in writing to the effect that the amount is not being
       given out of funds acquired by him by borrowing or accepting loans
       or deposits from others and the company shall disclose the details
       of money so accepted in the Board's Reports;
(ix)   any amount raised by the issue of bonds or debentures secured by a
       first charge or a charge ranking pari passu with the first charge on
       any assets referred to in Schedule III of the Act excluding intangible
       assets of the company or bonds or debentures compulsorily
       convertible into shares of the company within five years:
       Provided that if such bonds or debentures are secured by the charge
       of any assets referred to in Schedule III of the Act, excluding
       intangible assets, the amount of such bonds or debentures shall not
       exceed the market value of such assets as assessed by a registered
       valuer;
(x)    any amount received from an employee of the company not
       exceeding his annual salary under a contract of employment with the
       company in the nature of non-interest bearing security deposit;
(xi)   any non-interest bearing amount received or held in trust;
(xii) any amount received in the course of, or for the purposes of, the
      business of the company,
       (a)   as an advance for the supply of goods or provision of services
             accounted for in any manner whatsoever provided that such
             advance is appropriated against supply of goods or provision
             of services within a period of three hundred and sixty five days
             from the date of acceptance of such advance:
             Provided that in case of any advance which is subject matter of
             any legal proceedings before any court of law, the said time
             limit of three hundred and sixty five days shall not apply:
       (b)   as advance, accounted for in any manner whatsoever,
             received in connection with consideration for an immovable
             property under an agreement or arrangement , provided that
             such advance is adjusted against such property in accordance
             with the terms of agreement or arrangement;
       (c)   as security deposit for the performance of the contract for
             supply of goods or provision of services;
       (d)   as advance received under long term projects for supply of
             capital goods except those covered under item (b) above:

                                   148
           Provided that if the amount received under items (a), (b) and
           (d) above becomes refundable (with or without interest) due to
           the reasons that the company accepting the money does not
           have necessary permission or approval, wherever required, to
           deal in the goods or properties or services for which the money
           is taken, then the amount received shall be deemed to be a
           deposit under these rules:
           Explanation.- For the purposes of this sub-clause the amount
           referred to in the proviso shall be deemed to be deposits on
           the expiry of fifteen days from the date they become due for
           refund.
(xiii) any amount brought in by the promoters of the company by way of
       unsecured loan in pursuance of the stipulation of any lending
       financial institution or a bank subject to fulfillment of the following
       conditions, namely:
     (a)   the loan is brought in pursuance of the stipulation imposed by
           the lending institutions on the promoters to contribute such
           finance;
     (b)   the loan is provided by the promoters themselves or by their
           relatives or by both; and
     (c)   the exemption under this sub-clause shall be available only till
           the loans of financial institution or bank are repaid and not
           thereafter;
(xiv) any amount accepted by a Nidhi company in accordance with the
      rules made under section 406 of the Act.
     Explanation.- For the purposes of this clause, any amount.
     (a)   received by the company, whether in the form of instalments or
           otherwise, from a person with promise or offer to give returns,
           in cash or in kind, on completion of the period specified in the
           promise or offer, or earlier, accounted for in any manner
           whatsoever, or
     (b)   any additional contributions, over and above the amount under
           item (a) above, made by the company as part of such promise
           or offer, shall be treated as a deposit;
     (d)   ``depositor'' means,
           (i)    any member of the company who has made a deposit
                  with the company in accordance with the provisions of
                  subsection (2) of section 73 of the Act, or
           (ii)   any person who has made a deposit with a public
                  company in accordance with the provisions of section 76
                  of the Act; 3/10


                                  149
                 (e)   "eligible company" means a public company as referred to in
                       sub-section (1) of section 76, having a net worth of not less
                       than one hundred crore rupees or a turnover of not less than
                       five hundred crore rupees and which has obtained the prior
                       consent of the company in general meeting by means of a
                       special resolution and also filed the said resolution with the
                       Registrar of Companies before making any invitation to the
                       Public for acceptance of deposits:
                       Provided that an eligible company, which is accepting deposits
                       within the limits specified under clause (c) of subsection (1) of
                       section 180, may accept deposits by means of an ordinary
                       resolution;
                 (f)   "fees" means fees as specified in the Companies (Registration
                       Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014;
                 (g)   "Form" or `e-Form" means a form set forth in Annexure to these
                       rules which shall be used for the matter to which it relates;
                 (h)   "section" means section of the Act;
                 (i)   "trustee" means the trustee as defined in section 3 of the
                       Indian Trusts Act, 1882 (12 of 1882).
(2)   Words and expressions used in these rules but not defined and defined in the
      Act or in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934) or in the Companies
      (Specification of definitions details) Rules, 2014, shall have the meanings
      respectively assigned to them in the said Acts or in the said rules.
3.    Terms and conditions of acceptance of deposits by companies.- (1) On
      and from the commencement of these rules,--
      (a)   no company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 and no eligible
            company shall accept or renew any deposit, whether secured or
            unsecured, which is repayable on demand or upon receiving a notice
            within a period of less than six months or more than thirty-six months from
            the date of acceptance or renewal of such deposit:
            Provided that a company may, for the purpose of meeting any of its short-
            term requirements of funds, accept or renew such deposits for repayment
            earlier than six months from the date of deposit or renewal, as the case
            may be, subject to the condition that
            (a) such deposits shall not exceed ten per cent. of the aggregate of the
            paid up share capital, free reserves and securities premium account of the
            company, and
      (b)   such deposits are repayable not earlier than three months from the date
            of such deposits or renewal thereof.
(2)   Where depositors so desire, deposits may be accepted in joint names not
      exceeding three, with or without any of the clauses, namely, "Jointly", "Either or
      Survivor", "First named or Survivor", "Anyone or Survivor".


                                             150
(3)   No company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 shall accept or renew
      any deposit from its members, if the amount of such deposits together with the
      amount of other deposits outstanding as on the date of acceptance or renewal
      of such deposits exceeds twenty five per cent. of the aggregate of the paid up
      share capital, free reserves and securities premium account of the company.
(4)   No eligible company shall accept or renew
      (a)   any deposit from its members, if the amount of such deposit together
            with the amount of deposits outstanding as on the date of acceptance or
            renewal of such deposits from members exceeds ten per cent. of the
            aggregate of the paid up share capital, free reserves and securities
            premium account of the company;
      (b)   any other deposit, if the amount of such deposit together with the amount
            of such other deposits, other than the deposit referred to in clause (a),
            outstanding on the date of acceptance or renewal exceeds twenty-five
            per cent. of 4/10aggregate of the paid up share capital, free reserves and
            securities premium account of the company.
(5)   No Government company eligible to accept deposits under section 76 shall
      accept or renew any deposit, if the amount of such deposits together with the
      amount of other deposits outstanding as on the date of acceptance or renewal
      exceeds thirty five per cent. of the aggregate of its paid up share capital, free
      reserves and securities premium account of the company.
(6)   No company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 or any eligible company
      shall invite or accept or renew any deposit in any form, carrying a rate of
      interest or pay brokerage thereon at a rate exceeding the maximum rate of
      interest or brokerage prescribed by the Reserve Bank of India for acceptance
      of deposits by non-banking financial companies.
      Explanation:- For the purposes of this sub-rule, it is hereby clarified that the
      person who is authorised, in writing, by a company to solicit deposits on its
      behalf and through whom deposits are actually procured shall only be entitled
      to the brokerage and payment of brokerage to any other person for procuring
      deposits shall be deemed to be in violation of these rules.
(7)   The company shall not reserve to itself either directly or indirectly a right to
      alter, to the prejudice or disadvantage of the depositor, any of the terms and
      conditions of the deposit, deposit trust deed and deposit insurance contract
      after circular or circular in the form of advertisement is issued and deposits are
      accepted.
(8)   Every eligible company shall obtain, at least once in a year, credit rating for
      deposits accepted by it in the manner specified herein below and a copy of the
      rating shall be sent to the registrar of the companies along with the return of the
      deposits in form DPT-3.
      Name of the agency                     Minimum investment grade rating
      (a) The credit rating information FA- (FA Minus)
      services of India Ltd.

                                              151
      (b)ICRA Ltd.                           MA- (MA Minus)
      © Credit Analysis and Research CARE BBB(FD)
      Ltd.
      (d) Fitch Rating India Private Ltd.    tA(ind)(FD)
      (e) Brickwork Rating India Private BWR FBBB]
      Ltd.
      (f) SME Rating Agency of India SMERAA
      Ltd.


4.    Form and particulars of advertisements or circulars.- (1) Every company
      referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 intending to invite deposit from its
      members shall issue a circular to all its members by registered post with
      acknowledgement due or speed post or by electronic mode in Form DPT-1:
      Provided that in addition to issue of such circular to all members in the manner
      specified above, the circular may be published in English language in an
      English newspaper and in vernacular language in a vernacular newspaper
      having wide circulation in the State in which the registered office of the
      company is situated.
(2)   Every eligible company intending to invite deposits shall issue a circular in the
      form of an advertisement in Form DPT-1 for the purpose in English language in
      an English newspaper and in vernacular language in one vernacular
      newspaper having wide circulation in the State in which the registered office of
      the company is situated.
(3)   Every company inviting deposits from the public shall upload a copy of the
      circular on its website, if any.
(4)   No company shall issue or allow any other person to issue or cause to be
      issued on its behalf, any circular or a circular in the form of advertisement
      inviting deposits, unless such circular or circular in the form of advertisement is
      issued on the authority and in the name of the Board of directors of the
      company.
(5)   No circular or a circular in the form of advertisement shall be issued by or on
      behalf of a company unless, not less than thirty days before the date of such
      issue, there has been delivered to the Registrar for registration a copy thereof
      signed by a majority of the directors of the company as constituted at the time
      the Board approved the circular or circular in the form of advertisement, or their
      agents, duly authorised by them in writing.
(6)   A circular or circular in the form of advertisement issued shall be valid until the
      expiry of six months from the date of closure of the financial year in which it is
      issued or until the date on which the financial statement is laid before the
      company in annual general meeting or, where the annual general meeting for
      any year has not been held, the latest day on which that meeting should have
      been held in accordance with the provisions of the Act, whichever is earlier,

                                              152
      and a fresh circular or circular in the form of advertisement shall be issued, in
      each succeeding financial year, for inviting deposits during that financial year.
      Explanation: For the purpose of this rule, the date of the issue of the
      newspaper in which the advertisement appears shall be taken as the date of
      issue of the advertisement and the effective date of issue of circular shall be
      the date of dispatch of the circular.
5.    Manner and extent of deposit insurance.- (1) Every company referred to in
      sub-section (2) of section 73 and every other eligible company inviting deposits
      shall enter into a contract for providing deposit insurance at least thirty days
      before the issue of circular or advertisement or at least thirty days before the
      date of renewal, as the case may be.
      "Provided that the companies may accept deposit without deposit insurance
      contract till the 31st March, 2016 or till the availability of a deposit insurance
      product, whichever is earlier."
      Explanation- For the purposes of this sub-rule, the amount as specified in the
      deposit insurance contract shall be deemed to be the amount in respect of both
      principal amount and interest due thereon.
(2)   The deposit insurance contract shall specifically provide that in case the
      company defaults in repayment of principal amount and interest thereon, the
      depositor shall be entitled to the repayment of principal amount of deposits and
      the interest thereon by the insurer up to the aggregate monetary ceiling as
      specified in the contract:
      Provided that in the case of any deposit and interest not exceeding twenty
      thousand rupees, the deposit insurance contract shall provide for payment of
      the full amount of the deposit and interest and in the case of any deposit and
      the interest thereon in excess of twenty thousand rupees, the deposit insurance
      contract shall provide for payment of an amount not less than twenty thousand
      rupees for each depositor.
(3)   The amount of insurance premium paid on the insurance of such deposits shall
      be borne by the company itself and shall not be recovered from the depositors
      by deducting the same from the principal amount or interest payable thereon.
(4)   If any default is made by the company in complying with the terms and
      conditions of the deposit insurance contract which makes the insurance cover
      ineffective, the company shall either rectify the default immediately or enter into
      a fresh contract within thirty days and in case of non-compliance, the amount of
      deposits covered under the deposit insurance contract and interest payable
      thereon shall be repaid within the next fifteen days and if such a company does
      not repay the amount of deposits within said fifteen days it shall pay fifteen per
      cent. interest per annum for the period of delay and shall be treated as having
      defaulted and shall be liable to be punished in accordance with the provisions
      of the Act.
6.    Creation of security.- (1) For the purposes of providing security, every
      company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 and every eligible
      company inviting secured deposits shall provide for security by way of a charge

                                              153
      on its assets as referred to in Schedule III of the Act excluding intangible assets
      of the company for the due repayment of the amount of deposit and interest
      thereon for an amount which shall not be less than the amount remaining
      unsecured by the deposit insurance:
      Provided that in the case of deposits which are secured by the charge on the
      assets referred to in Schedule III of the Act excluding intangible assets, the
      amount of such deposits and the interest payable thereon shall not exceed the
      market value of such assets as assessed by a registered valuer.
      Explanation. I ­ For the purposes of this sub-rule it is clarified that the company
      shall ensure that the total value of the security either by way of deposit
      insurance or by way of charge or by both on company's assets shall not be less
      than the amount of deposits accepted and the interest payable thereon.
      Explanation. II- For the purposes of proviso to sub-clause (ix) of clause (c) of
      sub-rule (1) of rule 2 and this sub-rule, it is hereby clarified that pending
      notification of sub-section (1) of section 247 of the Act and finalisation of
      qualifications and experience of valuers, valuation of stocks, shares,
      debentures, securities etc. shall be conducted by an independent merchant
      banker who is registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India or an
      independent chartered accountant in practice having a minimum experience of
      ten years.
(2)   The security (not being in the nature of a pledge) for deposits as specified in
      sub-rule (1) shall be created in favour of a trustee for the depositors on:
      (a)   specific movable property of the company, or
      (b)   specific immovable property of the company wherever situated, or any
            interest therein.
7.    Appointment of trustee for depositors.- (1) No company referred to in sub-
      section (2) of section 73 or any eligible company shall issue a circular or
      advertisement inviting secured deposits unless the company has appointed one
      or more trustees for depositors for creating security for the deposits:
      Provided that a written consent shall be obtained from the trustee for depositors
      before their appointment and a statement shall appear in the circular or circular
      in the form of advertisement with reasonable prominence to the effect that the
      trustees for depositors have given their consent to the company to be so
      appointed.
(2)   The company shall execute a deposit trust deed in Form DPT-2 at least seven
      days before issuing the circular or circular in the form of advertisement.
(3)   No person including a company that is in the business of providing trusteeship
      services shall be appointed as a trustee for the depositors, if the proposed
      trustee ­
      (a)   is a director, key managerial personnel or any other officer or an
            employee of the company or of its holding, subsidiary or associate
            company or a depositor in the company;


                                              154
      (b)   is indebted to the company, or its subsidiary or its holding or associate
            company or a subsidiary of such holding company;
      (c)   has any material pecuniary relationship with the company;
      (d)   has entered into any guarantee arrangement in respect of principal debts
            secured by the deposits or interest thereon;
      (e)   is related to any person specified in clause (a) above.
(4)   No trustee for depositors shall be removed from office after the issue of circular
      or advertisement and before the expiry of his term except with the consent of all
      the directors present at a meeting of the board.
      Provided that in case the company is required to have independent directors, at
      least one independent director shall be present in such meeting of the Board
8.    Duties of trustees.- It shall be the duty of every trustee for depositors to
      (a)   ensure that the assets of the company on which charge is created
            together with the amount of deposit insurance are sufficient to cover the
            repayment of the principal amount of secured deposits outstanding and
            interest accrued thereon;
      (b)   satisfy himself that the circular or advertisement inviting deposits does not
            contain any information which is inconsistent with the terms of the deposit
            scheme or with the trust deed and is in compliance with the rules and
            provisions of the Act;
      (c)   ensure that the company does not commit any breach of covenants and
            provisions of the trust deed;
      (d)   take such reasonable steps as may be necessary to procure a remedy for
            any breach of covenants of the trust deed or the terms of invitation of
            deposits;
      (e)   take steps to call a meeting of the holders of depositors as and when such
            meeting is required to be held;
      (f)   supervise the implementation of the conditions regarding creation of
            security for deposits and the terms of deposit insurance;
      (g)   do such acts as are necessary in the event the security becomes
            enforceable;
      (h)   carry out such acts as are necessary for the protection of the interest of
            depositors and to resolve their grievances.
9.    Meeting of depositors.- The trustee for depositors shall call a meeting of all
      the depositors on
      (a)   requisition in writing signed by at least one-tenth of the depositors in value
            for the time being outstanding;
      (b)   the happening of any event, which constitutes a default or which, in the
            opinion of the trustee for depositors, affects the interest of the depositors.

                                              155
10.   Form of application for deposits.- (1) On and from the commencement of
      these rules, no company shall accept, or renew any deposit, whether secured
      or unsecured, unless an application, in such form as specified by the company,
      is submitted by the intending depositor for the acceptance of such deposit.
(2)   The form of application referred to in sub-rule (1) shall contain a declaration by
      the intending depositor to the effect that the deposit is not being made out of
      any money borrowed by him from any other person.
11.   Power to nominate.- Every depositor may, at any time, nominate any person
      to whom his deposits shall vest in the event of his death and the provisions of
      section 72 shall, as far as may be, apply to the nomination made under this
      rule.
12.   Furnishing of deposit receipts to depositors.- (1) Every company shall, on
      the acceptance or renewal of a deposit, furnish to the depositor or his agent a
      receipt for the amount received by the company, within a period of twenty one
      days from the date of receipt of money or realisation of cheque or date of
      renewal.
(2)   The receipt referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be signed by an officer of the
      company duly authorised by the Board in this behalf and shall state the date of
      deposit, the name and address of the depositor, the amount received by the
      company as deposit, the rate of interest payable thereon and the date on which
      the deposit is repayable.
13.   Maintenance of liquid assets and creation of deposit repayment reserve
      account.- Every company referred to in sub-section (2) of section 73 and every
      eligible company shall on or before the 30th day of April of each year deposit
      the sum as specified in clause (c) of the said sub-section with any scheduled
      bank and the amount so deposited shall not be utilised for any purpose other
      than for the repayment of deposits:
      Provided that the amount remaining deposited shall not at any time fall below
      fifteen per cent. of the amount of deposits maturing, until the end of the current
      financial year and the next financial year.
14.   Registers of deposits.- (1) Every company accepting deposits shall maintain
      at its registered office one or more separate registers for deposits accepted or
      renewed, in which there shall be entered separately in the case of each
      depositor the following particulars, namely:
      (a)   name, address and PAN of the depositor/s;
      (b)   particulars of guardian, in case of a minor;
      (c)   particulars of the nominee;
      (d)   deposit receipt number;
      (e)   date and the amount of each deposit;
      (f)   duration of the deposit and the date on which each deposit is repayable;
      (g)   rate of interest or such deposits to be payable to the depositor;

                                              156
      (h)   due date for payment of interest;
      (i)   mandate and instructions for payment of interest and for non-deduction of
            tax at source, if any;
      (j)   date or dates on which the payment of interest shall be made;
      (k)   details of deposit insurance including extent of deposit insurance;
      (l)   particulars of security or charge created for repayment of deposits;
      (m) any other relevant particulars;
(2)   The entries specified in sub-rule (1) shall be made within seven days from the
      date of issuance of the receipt duly authenticated by a director or secretary of
      the company or by any other officer authorised by the Board for this purpose.
(3)   The register referred to in sub-rule (1) shall be preserved in good order for a
      period of not less than eight years from the financial year in which the latest
      entry is made in the register.
15.   General provisions regarding premature repayment of deposits.- Where a
      company makes a repayment of deposits, on the request of the depositor, after
      the expiry of a period of six months from the date of such deposit but before the
      expiry of the period for which such deposit was accepted, the rate of interest
      payable on such deposit shall be reduced by one per cent. from the rate which
      the company would have paid had the deposit been accepted for the period for
      which such deposit had actually run and the company shall not pay interest at
      any rate higher than the rate so reduced :
      Provided that nothing contained in this rule shall apply to the repayment of any
      deposit before the expiry of the period for which such deposit was accepted by
      the company, if such repayment is made solely for the purpose of--
      (a)   complying with the provisions of rule 3; or
      (b)   providing war risk or other related benefits to the personnel of the naval,
            military or air forces or to their families, on an application made by the
            associations or societies formed by such personnel, during the period of
            emergency declared under article 352 of the Constitution :
      Provided further that where a company referred to in under sub-section (2) of
      section 73 or any eligible company permits a depositor to renew his deposit,
      before the expiry of the period for which such deposit was accepted by the
      company, for availing of a higher rate of interest, the company shall pay interest
      to such depositor at the higher rate if such deposit is renewed in accordance
      with the other provisions of these rules and for a period longer than the
      unexpired period of the deposit.
      Explanation: For the purposes of this rule, where the period for which the
      deposit had run contains any part of a year, then, if such part is less than six
      months, it shall be excluded and if such part is six months or more, it shall be
      reckoned as one year.



                                                157
16.   Return of deposits to be filed with the Registrar.- Every company to which
      these rules apply, shall on or before the 30th day of June, of every year, file
      with the Registrar, a return in Form DPT-3 along with the fee as provided in
      Companies (Registration Offices and Fees) Rules, 2014 and furnish the
      information contained therein as on the 31st day of March of that year duly
      audited by the auditor of the company.
17.   Penal rate of interest.- Every company shall pay a penal rate of interest of
      eighteen per cent. per annum for the overdue period in case of deposits,
      whether secured or unsecured, matured and claimed but remaining unpaid.
18.   Power of Central Government to decide certain questions. If any question
      arises as to the applicability of these rules to a particular company, such
      question shall be decided by the Central Government in consultation with the
      Reserve Bank of India.
19.   Applicability of sections 73 and 74 to eligible companies.- Pursuant to
      provisions of sub-section (2) of section 76 of the Act, the provisions of sections
      73 and 74 shall, mutatis mutandis, apply to acceptance of deposits from public
      by eligible companies.
      Explanation.- For the purposes of this rule, it is hereby clarified that in case of a
      company which had accepted or invited public deposits under the relevant
      provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 and rules made under that Act
      (hereinafter known as "Earlier Deposits") and has been repaying such deposits
      and interest thereon in accordance with such provisions, the provisions of
      clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 74 of the Act shall be deemed to have
      been complied with if the company complies with requirements under the Act
      and these rules and continues to repay such deposits and interest due thereon
      on due dates for the remaining period of such deposit in accordance with the
      terms and conditions and period of such Earlier Deposits and in compliance
      with the requirements under the Act and these rules;
      Provided further that the fresh deposits by every eligible company shall have to
      be in accordance with the provisions of Chapter V of the Act and these rules;
20.   Statement regarding deposits existing as on the date of commencement
      of the Act.- For the purposes of clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 74, the
      statement shall be in Form DPT-4.
21.   Punishment for contravention.- If any company referred to in sub-section (2)
      of section 73 or any eligible company inviting deposits or any other person
      contravenes any provision of these rules for which no punishment is provided in
      the Act, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall
      be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees and where
      the contravention is a continuing one, with a further fine which may extend to
      five hundred rupees for every day after the first day during which the
      contravention continues.




                                               158

 
 
Home | About Us | Terms and Conditions | Contact Us
Copyright 2016 CAinINDIA All Right Reserved.
Designed and Developed by Binarysoft Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Internet Marketing Website Marketing Internet Promotion Internet Marketing India Website Marketing India Internet Promotion India Internet Marketing Consultancy Website Marketing Consulta

Transfer Pricing | International Taxation | Business Consulting | Corporate Compliance and Consulting | Assurance and Risk Advisory | Indirect Taxes | Direct Taxes | Transaction Advisory | Regular Compliance and Reporting | Tax Assessments | International Taxation Advisory | Capital Structuring | Withholding tax advisory | Expatriate Tax Reporting | Litigation | Badges | Club Badges | Seals | Military Insignias | Emblems | Family Crest | Software Development India | Software Development Company | SEO Company | Web Application Development | MLM Software | MLM Solutions