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Section 90 of the Income-tax Act, 1961- Double Taxation Agreement
April, 18th 2009

Section 90 of the Income-tax Act, 1961- Double Taxation Agreement - Agreement for Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Foreign Countries - With the of Government of the Syrian Arab Republic

NOTIFICATION NO. 33/2009-FTD-II, DATED, 30-3-2009

Whereas the annexed Agreement and Protocol between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income signed in India on the 18th day of June, 2008 shall come into force on the 10th day of November, 2008, being the date of receipt of later of the notifications after completion of the procedures as required by the respective laws for the entry into force of this Agreement, in accordance with Article 29 of the said Agreement.

Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by section 90 of the Income-tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961), the Central Government hereby directs that all the provisions of the said Agreement and Protocol annexed hereto shall be given effect to in the Union of India with effect from the 1st day of April, 2009.

AGREEMENT

BETWEEN

THE GOVERNMENT OF

THE REPUBLIC OF INDIA

AND

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

for

the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to

Taxes on Income

PREAMBLE

The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, desiring to conclude an Agreement for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, and with a view to promoting economic cooperation between the two countries, have agreed as follows:

Article 1

PERSONAL SCOPE

This Agreement shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

Article 2

TAXES COVERED

1. This Agreement shall apply to taxes on income imposed on behalf of a Contracting State or of its political subdivisions or local authorities, irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.

2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property, taxes on the total amounts of wages or salaries paid by enterprises.

3. The existing taxes to which the Agreement shall apply are in particular:

(a) In the case of the Syrian Arab Republic:

(i) the income tax on commercial, industrial, and non-commercial

profits;

(ii) the income tax on salaries and wages;

(iii) the income tax on non-residents;

(iv) the income tax on revenue of movable and immovable capital; and

(v) surcharges imposed as percentages of the above mentioned taxes; including surcharges imposed by the local authorities.

(hereinafter referred to as "the tax of the Syrian Arab Republic")

(b) In the case of the Republic of India, the income tax, including any surcharge thereon;

(hereinafter referred to as "Indian tax")

4. The Agreement shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Agreement in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.

Article 3
 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS
 
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, unless the context otherwise requires:

(a) the term "Syria" means, in accordance with international law, the territories of the Syrian Arab Republic including its internal waters, territorial sea, the subsoil thereof and the airspace above them to which Syria has sovereign rights and other maritime areas to which Syria has the right to exercise sovereign rights for the purposes of exploration, exploitation and conservation of natural resources.

(b) the term "India" means the territory of India and includes the territorial sea and airspace above it, as well as any other maritime zone in which India has sovereign rights, other rights and jurisdiction, according to the Indian law and in accordance with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982;

(c) The terms "Contracting State" and "other Contracting State" mean the Syrian Arab Republic or the Republic of India, as the context requires;

(d) The term "person''' includes an individual, a company, a body of persons and any other entity which is treated as a taxable unit under the taxtion laws in force in the respective Contracting States;

(e) The term national" means:

(i) any individual possessing the nationality of a Contracting State;

(ii) any legal person, partnership or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;

(f) The term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;

(g) The term "enterprise" applies to the carrying on of any business;

(h) The terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;

(i) The term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;

(j) The term " competent authority " means :

(a) in the case of Syria, the Minister of Finance or his authorized representative;

(b) in the case of India: the Finance Minister, Government of India, or his authorized representative;

(k) the term 'tax" means Indian tax or the tax of the Syrian Arab Republic, as the context requires, but shall not include any amount which is payable in respect of any default or omission in relation to the taxes to which this Agreement applies or which represents a penalty or fine imposed relating to those taxes;

(l) The term "fiscal year" means:

(i) in the case of India: the financial year beginning on the 1st day of April;

(ii) in the case of Syria: the financial year beginning on the 1st day of January.

2. As regards the application of the Agreement at any time by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning that it has at that time under the law of that State for the purposes of the taxes to which the Agreement applies, any meaning under the applicable tax laws of that State prevailing over a meaning given to the term under other laws of that State.

Article 4
 
RESIDENT

1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the laws of that State is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management or any other criterion of a similar nature, and also includes that State and any political subdivision or local authority thereof. This term, however, does not include any person who is liable to tax in a Contracting State in respect only of income from sources in that State.

2. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:

(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has a permanent home available to him; if he has a permanent home available to him in both States, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (center of vital interests);

(b) if the State in which he has his center of vital interests cannot be determined, or if he has not a permanent home available to him in either State, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which he has an habitual abode;

(c) if he has an habitual abode in both States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State of which he is a national;

(d) if he is a national of both States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.

3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1, a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident only of the State in which its place of effective management is situated.

Article 5

PERMANENT ESTABLISHMENT
 
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.

2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:

(a) a place of management;

(b) a branch;

(c) an office;

(d) a factory;

(e) a workshop;

(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources;

(g) a sales outlet; and

(h) a farm, plantation or other place where agricultural, forestry, plantation

or related activities are carried on;

(i) a warehouse in relation to a person providing storage facilities for others on payment of charges.

3. (a) A building site or construction, assembly or installation project or supervisory activities in connection therewith constitutes a permanent establishment but only if such site, project or activities continue for a period of 270 days or more.

(b) The furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise through employees or other personnel engaged by the enterprise for such purpose, but only where activities of that nature continue (for the same or connected project) within the country for a period or periods aggregating more than 183 days within any 12-month period.

4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:

(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage or display of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;

(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage or display;

(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;

(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;

(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activities of a preparatory or auxiliary character;

(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in sub-paragraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person - other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies - is acting in a Contracting State on behalf of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the first-mentioned Contracting State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, if such a person:

(a)   has and habitually exercises in that State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph, or

(b)   has no such authority, but habitually maintains in the first-mentioned State a stock of goods or merchandise from which he regularly delivers goods or merchandise on behalf of the enterprise: or

(c)    habitually secures orders in the first-mentioned State, wholly or almost wholly for the enterprise itself.

6. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, an insurance enterprise of a Contracting State shall, except in regard to re-insurance, be deemed to have a permanent establishment in the other Contracting State if it collects premiums in the territory of that other State or insures risks situated therein through a person other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 7 applies.

7. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided that such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business. However, when the activities of such an agent are devoted wholly or almost wholly on behalf of that enterprise, he will not be considered an agent of an independent status within the meaning of this paragraph.

8. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.

Article 6

INCOME FROM IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

1. Income from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) may be taxed in the Contracting State in which such immovable property is situated in accordance with the laws of that State.

2. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.

3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.

Article 7

BUSINESS PROFITS

1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other Contracting State but only so much of them as are attributable to that permanent establishment.

2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.

3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere, in accordance with the provisions of and subject to the limitations of the tax laws of that State.

4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary. The method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.

5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.

6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs of this Article, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.

7. Where profits include items of income, which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Agreement, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.

Article 8

INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC

1. Profits derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable-only in that State.

2. If the place of effective management of a shipping enterprise is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbor of the ship is situated, or if there is no such home harbor, in the Contracting State of which the operator of the ship is a resident.

3. Profits derived by a transportation enterprise which is a resident of a Contracting State from the use, maintenance, or rental of containers (including trailers and other equipment for the transport of containers) used for the transport of goods or merchandise in international traffic which is incidental to its operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic, shall be taxable only in that Contracting State unless the containers are used solely within the other Contracting State.

4. For the purposes of this Article interest on investments directly connected with the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be regarded as profits derived from the operation of such ships or aircraft if they are integral to the carrying on of such business, and the provisions of Article 11 shall not apply in relation to such interest.

5. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.

Article 9
 
ASSOCIATED ENTERPRISES

1. Where :

(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or

(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State, and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.

2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State - and taxes accordingly - profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits if that other State considers the adjustment justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be had to the other provisions of this Agreement and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.

Article 10

DIVIDENDS

1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such dividends may also be taxed in the Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed :

(a) 5 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company (other than a partnership) which owns at least 10 per cent of the shares of the company paying the dividends :

(b) 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.

This paragraph shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.

3. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from any shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the dividends being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.

Article 11

INTEREST

1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the interest, is a resident of the other Contracting State, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, interest arising in a Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in that State, provided that it is derived and beneficially owned by:

(a) the Government, a political sub-division or a local authority of the other Contracting State; or

(b) (i) in the case of India, the Reserve Bank of India; and

(ii) in the case of Syria, the Central Bank of Syria.

4. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from Government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to such securities, bonds or debentures. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article.

5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be: shall apply.

6. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

7. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 12

ROYALTIES

1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise, and according to the laws of that State, but if the beneficial owner of the royalties is a resident of the other Contracting State the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.

3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work including cinematograph films or films or tapes used for television or radio broadcasting, any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for the use of, or the right to use, industrial, commercial or scientific equipment, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.

4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

5. (a) Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political sub-division, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection, with which the liability to pay the royalties was incurred, and such royalties are borne .by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.

(b) Where under sub-paragraph (a) royalties do not arise in one of the Contracting States, and the royalties relate to the use of, or the right to use, the right or property, in one of the Contracting State, the royalties shall be deemed to arise in that Contracting State.

6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Agreement.

Article 13
 
CAPITAL GAINS

1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other State.

3. Gains from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

4. Gains from the alienation of shares in a company which is a resident of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

5. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.

Article 14
 
INDEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES

1. Income derived by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State from the performance of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State. However, such income may be taxed in the other Contracting State in the following circumstances:

(a) if he has a fixed base regularly available to him in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing his activities; in that case, only so much of the income as is attributable to that fixed base may be taxed in that other Contracting State; or

(b) if his stay in the other Contracting State is for a period or periods amounting to or exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any period of twelve-months commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned; in that case, only so much of the income as is derived from the activities performed in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, surgeons, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.

Article 15

DEPENDENT PERSONAL SERVICES
 
1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of this Agreement, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:

(a) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period, commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned; and

(b) the remuneration is paid by or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State; and

(d)   the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.

3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic, by an enterprise of a Contracting State may be taxed in that State.

Article 16
 
DIRECTORS' FEES

Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors in a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.

Article 17

ARTISTES AND SPORTSPERSONS

1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as a sportsperson, from personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.

2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or a sportsperson in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or sportsperson himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or sportspersons are exercised.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, shall not apply to income from activities performed in a Contracting State by entertainers or sportspersons if the activities are substantially supported by public funds of one or both of the Contracting States or of political sub divisions or local authorities thereof. In such a case, the income shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the entertainer or sportsperson is a resident.

Article 18

PENSIONS

1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment shall be taxable only in that State, in accordance with its laws.

2. Nothing contained in paragraph 1 shall affect the provisions of the law of a Contracting State concerning the exemption of pensions from tax.

Article 19

GOVERNMENT SERVICE

1. (a) Salaries, wages and other similar remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political sub division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State, or sub division or local authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such salaries wages and other similar remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:

(i) is a national of that State; or

(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.

2. (a) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political sub-division or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or sub-division or authority shall be taxable only in that State.

(b) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.

3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16, 17 and 18 shall apply to salaries, wages and other similar remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political sub division or a local authority thereof.

4. Nothing contained in paragraph 2 shall affect the provisions of the law of a Contracting State concerning the exemption of pensions from tax.

Article 20
 
PROFESSORS, TEACHERS AND RESEARCH SCHOLARS

1. Remuneration which an individual, who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State, a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first mentioned State for the purpose of teaching, giving lectures, or engaging in research at a University, college, school, scientific research institution or any other similar institution recognized by the Government of the first-mentioned State, for such teaching, lectures or research shall not be taxed in the first mentioned State, for a period of one year from the date of his first arrival in the first-mentioned State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income from research carried out primarily for the benefit of a private person or persons and not for public interest.

3. For the purposes of this Article, an individual shall be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State if he is resident in that State in the fiscal year in which he visits the other Contracting State or in the immediately preceding fiscal year.

Article 21

STUDENTS

1. A student who is or was a resident of one of the Contracting States

immediately before visiting the other Contracting State and who is present in that other Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training, shall besides grants, loans and scholarships be exempt from tax in that other State on:

(a) payments made to him by persons residing outside that other State for the purposes of his maintenance, education or training; and

(b) remuneration which he derives from an employment which he exercises in the other Contracting State if the employment is directly related to his studies.

2. The benefits of this Article shall extend only for such period of time as may be reasonable or customarily required to complete the education or training undertaken, but in no event shall any individual have the benefits of this Article, for more than six consecutive years from the date of his first arrival in that other State.

Article 22

OTHER INCOME

1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Agreement shall be taxable only in that State.

2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the recipient of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, if a resident of a Contracting State derives income from sources within the other Contracting State in form of lotteries, crossword puzzles, races including horse races, card games and other games of any sort or gambling or betting of any nature whatsoever, such income may be taxed in the other Contracting State.

Article 23

ELIMINATION OF DOUBLE TAXATION

1. The laws in force in either of the Contracting States shall continue to

govern the taxation of income in the respective Contracting States. However, the provisions of this Agreement shall apply where express provisions have been made in this Agreement. When income is subject to tax in both Contracting States, relief from double taxation shall be given in accordance with the following paragraphs of this Article.

2. In India:

(a) Where a resident of India derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in Syria, India shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in Syria, such deduction shall not, however, exceed that portion of the tax as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in Syria.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Agreement income derived by a resident of India is exempt from tax in India, India may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

3. In Syria:

(a)     Where a resident of Syria derives income which, in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, may be taxed in India, Syria shall allow as a deduction from the tax on the income of that resident, an amount equal to the tax paid in India,

such deduction shall not, however, exceed that portion of the tax as computed before the deduction is given, which is attributable, as the case may be, to the income which may be taxed in India.

(b) Where in accordance with any provision of the Agreement, income derived by a resident of Syria is exempt from tax in Syria, Syria may nevertheless, in calculating the amount of tax on the remaining income of such resident, take into account the exempted income.

Article 24

NON-DISCRIMINATION

1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances, in particular with respect to residence, are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.

2. The taxation on a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favorably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.

3. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 7 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest, royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.

4. Enterprises of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other, similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.

5. The provisions of this Article shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, apply to taxes covered by this Agreement.

Article 25

MUTUAL AGREEMENT PROCEDURE

1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national. The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement.

2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Agreement. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.

3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Agreement. They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Agreement.

4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs of this Article. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a Commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.

Article 26

EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION

1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information (including documents or certified copies of the documents) as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political sub divisions or local authorities, insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Agreement. The exchange of information is not restricted by Articles 1 and 2. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) concerned with the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes referred to in the first sentence. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.

2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraphs 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:

(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or of the other Contracting State;

(b) to supply information(including documents and certified copies of the documents) which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;

(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).

Article 27

LIMITATION OF BENEFITS

A resident of a Contracting State shall not be entitled to the benefit of any reduction in or exemption from tax provided for in this Agreement if its affairs were arranged in such a manner that the primary purpose was to obtain the benefits under this Agreement. The cases of legal entities not having bona fide business activities shall be covered by the provisions of this Article.

Article 28

MEMBERS OF DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND CONSULAR POSTS

Nothing in this Agreement shall affect the fiscal privileges of members of diplomatic missions or consular posts under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.

Article 29

ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. The Contracting States shall notify each other in writing, through diplomatic channels that the procedures required by the respective laws for the entry into force of this Agreement have been completed.

2. This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of receipt of later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

3.The provisions of this Agreement shall have effect:

(a)      In India, in respect of income derived in any fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of April next following the calendar year in which the Agreement enters into force; and

(b) In Syria:

(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, on the amounts paid or credited to the account on or after the first day of January immediately following the calendar year in which the Agreement enters into force as per paragraph 1 of this Article.

(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, in respect of income derived in the fiscal year beginning on or after the first day of January following the calendar year in which the Agreement enters into force as per paragraph 1 of this Article.

4. The Agreement between the Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income signed at New Delhi on the 6th day of February, 1984 shall cease to have effect when the provisions of this Agreement become effective in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 3.

Article 30

TERMINATION

1. This Agreement shall remain in force indefinitely until terminated by a Contracting State. Either Contracting State may terminate the Agreement, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year beginning after the expiry of five years from the date of entry into force of the Agreement. In such event, the Agreement shall cease to have-effect:

(a) In India, in respect of income derived in any fiscal year on or after the first day of April next following the calendar year in which the notice is given;

(b) In Syria:

(i) In respect of taxes withheld at the source, on the amounts paid or credited to the account on or after the 1st day of January of the calendar year following the year in which the notice of termination is given;

(ii) In respect of other taxes on income in respect of the income derived during the fiscal year beginning on or after the 1st day of January of the calendar year following the year in which the notice of termination has been given.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized thereto, have signed this Agreement.

DONE in duplicate at New Delhi this 18 day of June, 2008, each in the Hindi, Arabic and English languages, all texts being equally authentic. In case of divergence of interpretation, the English text shall prevail.

PROTOCOL

The Government of the Republic of India and the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic, on signing at New Delhi on the 18 day of June, 2008, the Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income have agreed upon the following provisions which shall form an integral part of the said Agreement:

1. For the purposes of paragraph 3 of Article 4, it is clarified that in cases where the State in which the place of effective management of a person (other than an individual) is situated cannot be determined, then the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.

2. With reference to paragraph 2 of Article 24, it is understood that this provision shall not be construed as preventing a Contracting State from charging the profits of a permanent establishment, which a company of the other Contracting State has in the first-mentioned State, within the framework of provisions of domestic law of the first mentioned Contracting State, nor as being in conflict with the provisions of paragraph 3 of article 7.
 
3. With reference to Article 26 on "Exchange of Information", it is understood that on a request made by a Contracting State, the competent authority of the other Contracting State shall give necessary information, for carrying out the provisions of this Agreement or of the domestic laws concerning taxes of every kind and description imposed on behalf of the Contracting States, or of their political sub divisions or local authorities, to the competent authority of the first mentioned State, which it can obtain under its domestic laws.

4. With reference to collection assistance, it is understood that if after the date of signature of this Agreement, Syria enters into an arrangement with another country to permit such assistance in collection, then Syria shall inform the Indian competent authority and shall immediately enter into negotiations for the purpose of incorporating provisions with regard to collection assistance in this Agreement.

 
 
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