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Exposure Draft of the Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Comments to be received by October 25, 2014)
October, 01st 2014
                     Exposure Draft


Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115, Revenue from
              Contracts with Customers




       (Last date for Comments: October 25, 2014)




                         Issued by
                Accounting Standards Board
       The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
                                       Exposure Draft
     Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115, Revenue from
                   Contracts with Customers

Following is the Exposure Draft of Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115, Revenue from
Contracts with Customers, issued by the Accounting Standards Board of The Institute of
Chartered Accountants of India, for comments. The Board invites comments on any specific
aspect of the Exposure Draft. Comments are most helpful if they indicate the specific paragraph
or group of paragraphs to which they relate, contain a clear rationale and, where applicable,
provide a suggestion for alternative wording.

Comments should be submitted in writing to the Secretary, Accounting Standards Board, The
Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, ICAI Bhawan, Post Box No. 7100, Indraprastha
Marg, New Delhi 110 002, so as to be received not later than October 25, 2014. Comments can
also be sent by email to commentsasb@icai.in or can now be submitted online on
http://www.icai.org/comments/asb/. Further clarifications on this Exposure Draft can be sought
by email to himanshi.arora@icai.in.

Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115 supersedes Ind AS 11, Construction Contracts, and
Ind AS 18, Revenue. The Appendices A and B to Ind AS 11 ie Service Concession Arrangements
and Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures, respectively are proposed to be included as
Appendices to Ind AS 115.
(The Exposure Draft of the Indian Accounting Standard includes paragraphs set in bold type and
plain type, which have equal authority. Paragraphs in bold type indicate the main principles.
This Exposure Draft of the Indian Accounting Standard should be read in the context of its
objective and the Preface to the Statements of Accounting Standards1)


Questions for Comments

While the Accounting Standards Board invites comments on any aspect of the Exposure
Draft, it specifically invites comments on the following issues:

1.      Paragraph 9 specifies criteria for identification of a contract with a customer. According
        to paragraph 9(e), an entity shall account for a contract with a customer only when it is
        probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which it will be entitled in
        exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer.
        This criterion was a part of the recognition of revenue in Indian Accounting Standard
        (Ind AS) 18, Revenue, which has now been shifted to identification of a contract. Do you
                                                            
1
   Attention is specifically drawn to paragraph 4.3 of the Preface, according to which accounting standards
  are intended to apply only to items which are material.
     agree? Why or Why not?

2.   According to paragraph 15(a), when a contract with a customer does not meet the criteria
     in paragraph 9 and an entity receives consideration from the customer, the entity shall
     recognise the consideration received as revenue only when the entity has no remaining
     obligations to transfer goods or services to the customer and all, or substantially all, of
     the consideration promised by the customer has been received by the entity and is non-
     refundable. Do you agree? Why or Why not?

3.   IFRIC 15, Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate, issued by the International
     Accounting Standards Board was not included in Ind AS 18. Such agreements were
     scoped out from Ind AS 18 and were included in Ind AS 11. The concerns arising from
     IFRIC 15 were taken up with the IASB by the ICAI and the Standard-Setters from some
     other countries. The IASB, in IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, on
     which Ind AS 115 is based, has attempted to address these concerns. The Accounting
     Standards Board also feels that the concerns appear to have been addressed in Ind AS 115
     under paragraph 35. Do you agree? Why or Why not?
Exposure Draft
Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115

Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Contents
                                                               Paragraphs
OBJECTIVE                                                             1-4
Meeting the objective                                                 2-4
SCOPE                                                                 5-8
RECOGNITION                                                          9-45
Identifying the contract                                             9-16
Combination of contracts                                               17
Contract modifications                                              18-21
Identifying performance obligations                                 22-30
   Promises in contracts with customers                             24-25
   Distinct goods or services                                       26-30
Satisfaction of performance obligations                             31-45
   Performance obligations satisfied over time                      35-37
   Performance obligations satisfied at a point in time                38
   Measuring progress towards complete satisfaction of a            39-45
   performance obligation
MEASUREMENT                                                         46-90
Determining the transaction price                                   47-72
   Variable consideration                                           50-59
   The existence of a significant financing component in the        60-65
   contract
   Non-cash consideration                                           66-69
   Consideration payable to a customer                              70-72
Allocating the transaction price to performance                     73-86
obligations
   Allocation based on stand-alone selling prices                   76-80
   Allocation of a discount                                         81-83
   Allocation of variable consideration                             84-86
Changes in the transaction price                                    87-90
CONTRACT COSTS                                                     91-104
Incremental costs of obtaining a contract                       91-94
Costs to fulfil a contract                                      95-98
Amortisation and impairment                                    99-104
PRESENTATION                                                  105-109
DISCLOSURE                                                    110-129
Contracts with customers                                      113-122
   Disaggregation of revenue                                  114-115
   Contract balances                                          116-118
   Performance obligations                                        119
   Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance   120-122
   obligations
Significant judgements in the application of this             123-126
Standard
   Determining the timing of satisfaction of performance      124-125
   obligations
   Determining the transaction price and the amounts             126
   allocated to performance obligations
Assets recognised from the costs to obtain or fulfil a        127-128
contract with a customer
Practical expedients                                              129
APPENDICES
A Defined terms
B Application Guidance
C Service Concession Arrangements
D Service Concession Arrangements: Disclosures
E Amendments to other Standards
1 Comparison with IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts
    with Customers
Exposure Draft
Indian Accounting Standard (Ind AS) 115

Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Objective
1   The objective of this Standard is to establish the principles that an entity shall apply
    to report useful information to users of financial statements about the nature,
    amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from a contract
    with a customer.

    Meeting the objective
2   To meet the objective in paragraph 1, the core principle of this Standard is that an entity
    shall recognise revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers
    in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in
    exchange for those goods or services.

3   An entity shall consider the terms of the contract and all relevant facts and circumstances
    when applying this Standard. An entity shall apply this Standard, including the use of any
    practical expedients, consistently to contracts with similar characteristics and in similar
    circumstances.

4   This Standard specifies the accounting for an individual contract with a customer.
    However, as a practical expedient, an entity may apply this Standard to a portfolio of
    contracts (or performance obligations) with similar characteristics if the entity reasonably
    expects that the effects on the financial statements of applying this Standard to the
    portfolio would not differ materially from applying this Standard to the individual
    contracts (or performance obligations) within that portfolio. When accounting for a
    portfolio, an entity shall use estimates and assumptions that reflect the size and
    composition of the portfolio.

Scope
5   An entity shall apply this Standard to all contracts with customers, except the following:

    (a)     lease contracts within the scope of Ind AS 17, Leases;

    (b)     insurance contracts within the scope of Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts;
    (c)     financial instruments and other contractual rights or obligations within the scope
            of Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments, Ind AS 110, Consolidated Financial
           Statements, Ind AS 111, Joint Arrangements, Ind AS 27, Separate Financial
           Statements and Ind AS 28, Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures; and

    (d)    non-monetary exchanges between entities in the same line of business to facilitate
           sales to customers or potential customers. For example, this Standard would not
           apply to a contract between two oil companies that agree to an exchange of oil to
           fulfil demand from their customers in different specified locations on a timely
           basis.

6   An entity shall apply this Standard to a contract (other than a contract listed in paragraph
    5) only if the counterparty to the contract is a customer. A customer is a party that has
    contracted with an entity to obtain goods or services that are an output of the entity's
    ordinary activities in exchange for consideration. A counterparty to the contract would
    not be a customer if, for example, the counterparty has contracted with the entity to
    participate in an activity or process in which the parties to the contract share in the risks
    and benefits that result from the activity or process (such as developing an asset in a
    collaboration arrangement) rather than to obtain the output of the entity's ordinary
    activities.

7   A contract with a customer may be partially within the scope of this Standard and
    partially within the scope of other Standards listed in paragraph 5.

    (a)    If the other Standards specify how to separate and/or initially measure one or
           more parts of the contract, then an entity shall first apply the separation and/or
           measurement requirements in those Standards. An entity shall exclude from the
           transaction price the amount of the part (or parts) of the contract that are initially
           measured in accordance with other Standards and shall apply paragraphs 73­86 to
           allocate the amount of the transaction price that remains (if any) to each
           performance obligation within the scope of this Standard and to any other parts of
           the contract identified by paragraph 7(b).

    (b)    If the other Standards do not specify how to separate and/or initially measure one
           or more parts of the contract, then the entity shall apply this Standard to separate
           and/or initially measure the part (or parts) of the contract.

8   This Standard specifies the accounting for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract
    with a customer and for the costs incurred to fulfil a contract with a customer if those
    costs are not within the scope of another Standard (see paragraphs 91­104). An entity
    shall apply those paragraphs only to the costs incurred that relate to a contract with a
    customer (or part of that contract) that is within the scope of this Standard.

Recognition
    Identifying the contract
9    An entity shall account for a contract with a customer that is within the scope of this
     Standard only when all of the following criteria are met:

     (a)    the parties to the contract have approved the contract (in writing, orally or in
            accordance with other customary business practices) and are committed to
            perform their respective obligations;

     (b)    the entity can identify each party's rights regarding the goods or services to
            be transferred;

     (c)    the entity can identify the payment terms for the goods or services to be
            transferred;

     (d)    the contract has commercial substance (ie the risk, timing or amount of the
            entity's future cash flows is expected to change as a result of the contract);
            and

     (e)    it is probable that the entity will collect the consideration to which it will be
            entitled in exchange for the goods or services that will be transferred to the
            customer. In evaluating whether collectability of an amount of consideration
            is probable, an entity shall consider only the customer's ability and intention
            to pay that amount of consideration when it is due. The amount of
            consideration to which the entity will be entitled may be less than the price
            stated in the contract if the consideration is variable because the entity may
            offer the customer a price concession (see paragraph 52).

10   A contract is an agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights
     and obligations. Enforceability of the rights and obligations in a contract is a matter of
     law. Contracts can be written, oral or implied by an entity's customary business practices.
     The practices and processes for establishing contracts with customers vary across legal
     jurisdictions, industries and entities. In addition, they may vary within an entity (for
     example, they may depend on the class of customer or the nature of the promised goods
     or services). An entity shall consider those practices and processes in determining
     whether and when an agreement with a customer creates enforceable rights and
     obligations.

11   Some contracts with customers may have no fixed duration and can be terminated or
     modified by either party at any time. Other contracts may automatically renew on a
     periodic basis that is specified in the contract. An entity shall apply this Standard to the
     duration of the contract (ie the contractual period) in which the parties to the contract
     have present enforceable rights and obligations.

12   For the purpose of applying this Standard, a contract does not exist if each party to the
     contract has the unilateral enforceable right to terminate a wholly unperformed contract
     without compensating the other party (or parties). A contract is wholly unperformed if
     both of the following criteria are met:
     (a)    the entity has not yet transferred any promised goods or services to the customer;
            and

     (b)    the entity has not yet received, and is not yet entitled to receive, any consideration
            in exchange for promised goods or services.

13   If a contract with a customer meets the criteria in paragraph 9 at contract inception, an
     entity shall not reassess those criteria unless there is an indication of a significant change
     in facts and circumstances. For example, if a customer's ability to pay the consideration
     deteriorates significantly, an entity would reassess whether it is probable that the entity
     will collect the consideration to which the entity will be entitled in exchange for the
     remaining goods or services that will be transferred to the customer.

14   If a contract with a customer does not meet the criteria in paragraph 9, an entity shall
     continue to assess the contract to determine whether the criteria in paragraph 9 are
     subsequently met.

15   When a contract with a customer does not meet the criteria in paragraph 9 and an entity
     receives consideration from the customer, the entity shall recognise the consideration
     received as revenue only when either of the following events has occurred:

     (a)    the entity has no remaining obligations to transfer goods or services to the
            customer and all, or substantially all, of the consideration promised by the
            customer has been received by the entity and is non-refundable; or

     (b)    the contract has been terminated and the consideration received from the customer
            is non-refundable.

16   An entity shall recognise the consideration received from a customer as a liability until
     one of the events in paragraph 15 occurs or until the criteria in paragraph 9 are
     subsequently met (see paragraph 14). Depending on the facts and circumstances relating
     to the contract, the liability recognised represents the entity's obligation to either transfer
     goods or services in the future or refund the consideration received. In either case, the
     liability shall be measured at the amount of consideration received from the customer.

     Combination of contracts
17   An entity shall combine two or more contracts entered into at or near the same time with
     the same customer (or related parties of the customer) and account for the contracts as a
     single contract if one or more of the following criteria are met:

     (a)    the contracts are negotiated as a package with a single commercial objective;

     (b)    the amount of consideration to be paid in one contract depends on the price or
            performance of the other contract; or
     (c)    the goods or services promised in the contracts (or some goods or services
            promised in each of the contracts) are a single performance obligation in
            accordance with paragraphs 22­30.

     Contract modifications
18   A contract modification is a change in the scope or price (or both) of a contract that is
     approved by the parties to the contract. In some industries and jurisdictions, a contract
     modification may be described as a change order, a variation or an amendment. A
     contract modification exists when the parties to a contract approve a modification that
     either creates new or changes existing enforceable rights and obligations of the parties to
     the contract. A contract modification could be approved in writing, by oral agreement or
     implied by customary business practices. If the parties to the contract have not approved
     a contract modification, an entity shall continue to apply this Standard to the existing
     contract until the contract modification is approved.

19   A contract modification may exist even though the parties to the contract have a dispute
     about the scope or price (or both) of the modification or the parties have approved a
     change in the scope of the contract but have not yet determined the corresponding change
     in price. In determining whether the rights and obligations that are created or changed by
     a modification are enforceable, an entity shall consider all relevant facts and
     circumstances including the terms of the contract and other evidence. If the parties to a
     contract have approved a change in the scope of the contract but have not yet determined
     the corresponding change in price, an entity shall estimate the change to the transaction
     price arising from the modification in accordance with paragraphs 50­54 on estimating
     variable consideration and paragraphs 56­58 on constraining estimates of variable
     consideration.

20   An entity shall account for a contract modification as a separate contract if both of the
     following conditions are present:

     (a)    the scope of the contract increases because of the addition of promised goods or
            services that are distinct (in accordance with paragraphs 26­30); and

     (b)    the price of the contract increases by an amount of consideration that reflects the
            entity's stand-alone selling prices of the additional promised goods or services
            and any appropriate adjustments to that price to reflect the circumstances of the
            particular contract. For example, an entity may adjust the stand-alone selling price
            of an additional good or service for a discount that the customer receives, because
            it is not necessary for the entity to incur the selling-related costs that it would
            incur when selling a similar good or service to a new customer.

21   If a contract modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with
     paragraph 20, an entity shall account for the promised goods or services not yet
     transferred at the date of the contract modification (ie the remaining promised goods or
     services) in whichever of the following ways is applicable:

     (a)    An entity shall account for the contract modification as if it were a termination of
            the existing contract and the creation of a new contract, if the remaining goods or
            services are distinct from the goods or services transferred on or before the date of
            the contract modification. The amount of consideration to be allocated to the
            remaining performance obligations (or to the remaining distinct goods or services
            in a single performance obligation identified in accordance with paragraph 22(b))
            is the sum of:

            (i)     the consideration promised by the customer (including amounts already
                    received from the customer) that was included in the estimate of the
                    transaction price and that had not been recognised as revenue; and

            (ii)    the consideration promised as part of the contract modification.

     (b)    An entity shall account for the contract modification as if it were a part of the
            existing contract if the remaining goods or services are not distinct and, therefore,
            form part of a single performance obligation that is partially satisfied at the date
            of the contract modification. The effect that the contract modification has on the
            transaction price, and on the entity's measure of progress towards complete
            satisfaction of the performance obligation, is recognised as an adjustment to
            revenue (either as an increase in or a reduction of revenue) at the date of the
            contract modification (ie the adjustment to revenue is made on a cumulative
            catch-up basis).

     (c)    If the remaining goods or services are a combination of items (a) and (b), then the
            entity shall account for the effects of the modification on the unsatisfied
            (including partially unsatisfied) performance obligations in the modified contract
            in a manner that is consistent with the objectives of this paragraph.

     Identifying performance obligations

22   At contract inception, an entity shall assess the goods or services promised in a
     contract with a customer and shall identify as a performance obligation each
     promise to transfer to the customer either:

     (a)    a good or service (or a bundle of goods or services) that is distinct; or

     (b)    a series of distinct goods or services that are substantially the same and that
            have the same pattern of transfer to the customer (see paragraph 23).

23   A series of distinct goods or services has the same pattern of transfer to the customer if
     both of the following criteria are met:
     (a)    each distinct good or service in the series that the entity promises to transfer to the
            customer would meet the criteria in paragraph 35 to be a performance obligation
            satisfied over time; and

     (b)    in accordance with paragraphs 39­40, the same method would be used to measure
            the entity's progress towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation
            to transfer each distinct good or service in the series to the customer.

     Promises in contracts with customers

24   A contract with a customer generally explicitly states the goods or services that an entity
     promises to transfer to a customer. However, the performance obligations identified in a
     contract with a customer may not be limited to the goods or services that are explicitly
     stated in that contract. This is because a contract with a customer may also include
     promises that are implied by an entity's customary business practices, published policies
     or specific statements if, at the time of entering into the contract, those promises create a
     valid expectation of the customer that the entity will transfer a good or service to the
     customer.

25   Performance obligations do not include activities that an entity must undertake to fulfil a
     contract unless those activities transfer a good or service to a customer. For example, a
     services provider may need to perform various administrative tasks to set up a contract.
     The performance of those tasks does not transfer a service to the customer as the tasks are
     performed. Therefore, those setup activities are not a performance obligation.

     Distinct goods or services

26   Depending on the contract, promised goods or services may include, but are not limited
     to, the following:

     (a)    sale of goods produced by an entity (for example, inventory of a manufacturer);

     (b)    resale of goods purchased by an entity (for example, merchandise of a retailer);

     (c)    resale of rights to goods or services purchased by an entity (for example, a ticket
            resold by an entity acting as a principal, as described in paragraphs B34­B38);

     (d)    performing a contractually agreed-upon task (or tasks) for a customer;

     (e)    providing a service of standing ready to provide goods or services (for example,
            unspecified updates to software that are provided on a when-and-if-available
            basis) or of making goods or services available for a customer to use as and when
            the customer decides;
     (f)    providing a service of arranging for another party to transfer goods or services to
            a customer (for example, acting as an agent of another party, as described in
            paragraphs B34­B38);

     (g)    granting rights to goods or services to be provided in the future that a customer
            can resell or provide to its customer (for example, an entity selling a product to a
            retailer promises to transfer an additional good or service to an individual who
            purchases the product from the retailer);

     (h)    constructing, manufacturing or developing an asset on behalf of a customer;

     (i)    granting licences (see paragraphs B52­B63); and

     (j)    granting options to purchase additional goods or services (when those options
            provide a customer with a material right, as described in paragraphs B39­B43).

27   A good or service that is promised to a customer is distinct if both of the following
     criteria are met:

     (a)    the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together
            with other resources that are readily available to the customer (ie the good or
            service is capable of being distinct); and

     (b)    the entity's promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately
            identifiable from other promises in the contract (ie the good or service is distinct
            within the context of the contract).

28   A customer can benefit from a good or service in accordance with paragraph 27(a) if the
     good or service could be used, consumed, sold for an amount that is greater than scrap
     value or otherwise held in a way that generates economic benefits. For some goods or
     services, a customer may be able to benefit from a good or service on its own. For other
     goods or services, a customer may be able to benefit from the good or service only in
     conjunction with other readily available resources. A readily available resource is a good
     or service that is sold separately (by the entity or another entity) or a resource that the
     customer has already obtained from the entity (including goods or services that the entity
     will have already transferred to the customer under the contract) or from other
     transactions or events. Various factors may provide evidence that the customer can
     benefit from a good or service either on its own or in conjunction with other readily
     available resources. For example, the fact that the entity regularly sells a good or service
     separately would indicate that a customer can benefit from the good or service on its own
     or with other readily available resources.

29   Factors that indicate that an entity's promise to transfer a good or service to a customer is
     separately identifiable (in accordance with paragraph 27(b)) include, but are not limited
     to, the following:
     (a)    the entity does not provide a significant service of integrating the good or service
            with other goods or services promised in the contract into a bundle of goods or
            services that represent the combined output for which the customer has
            contracted. In other words, the entity is not using the good or service as an input
            to produce or deliver the combined output specified by the customer.

     (b)    the good or service does not significantly modify or customise another good or
            service promised in the contract.

     (c)    the good or service is not highly dependent on, or highly interrelated with, other
            goods or services promised in the contract. For example, the fact that a customer
            could decide to not purchase the good or service without significantly affecting
            the other promised goods or services in the contract might indicate that the good
            or service is not highly dependent on, or highly interrelated with, those other
            promised goods or services.




30   If a promised good or service is not distinct, an entity shall combine that good or service
     with other promised goods or services until it identifies a bundle of goods or services that
     is distinct. In some cases, that would result in the entity accounting for all the goods or
     services promised in a contract as a single performance obligation.

     Satisfaction of performance obligations

31   An entity shall recognise revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance
     obligation by transferring a promised good or service (ie an asset) to a customer. An
     asset is transferred when (or as) the customer obtains control of that asset.

32   For each performance obligation identified in accordance with paragraphs 22­30, an
     entity shall determine at contract inception whether it satisfies the performance obligation
     over time (in accordance with paragraphs 35­37) or satisfies the performance obligation
     at a point in time (in accordance with paragraph 38). If an entity does not satisfy a
     performance obligation over time, the performance obligation is satisfied at a point in
     time.

33   Goods and services are assets, even if only momentarily, when they are received and used
     (as in the case of many services). Control of an asset refers to the ability to direct the use
     of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the asset. Control includes
     the ability to prevent other entities from directing the use of, and obtaining the benefits
     from, an asset. The benefits of an asset are the potential cash flows (inflows or savings in
     outflows) that can be obtained directly or indirectly in many ways, such as by:

     (a)    using the asset to produce goods or provide services (including public services);

     (b)    using the asset to enhance the value of other assets;

     (c)    using the asset to settle liabilities or reduce expenses;
     (d)    selling or exchanging the asset;

     (e)    pledging the asset to secure a loan; and

     (f)    holding the asset.

34   When evaluating whether a customer obtains control of an asset, an entity shall consider
     any agreement to repurchase the asset (see paragraphs B64­B76).

     Performance obligations satisfied over time

35   An entity transfers control of a good or service over time and, therefore, satisfies a
     performance obligation and recognises revenue over time, if one of the following criteria
     is met:

     (a)    the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the
            entity's performance as the entity performs (see paragraphs B3­B4);

     (b)    the entity's performance creates or enhances an asset (for example, work in
            progress) that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced (see
            paragraph B5); or

     (c)    the entity's performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the
            entity (see paragraph 36) and the entity has an enforceable right to payment for
            performance completed to date (see paragraph 37).

36   An asset created by an entity's performance does not have an alternative use to an entity
     if the entity is either restricted contractually from readily directing the asset for another
     use during the creation or enhancement of that asset or limited practically from readily
     directing the asset in its completed state for another use. The assessment of whether an
     asset has an alternative use to the entity is made at contract inception. After contract
     inception, an entity shall not update the assessment of the alternative use of an asset
     unless the parties to the contract approve a contract modification that substantively
     changes the performance obligation. Paragraphs B6­B8 provide guidance for assessing
     whether an asset has an alternative use to an entity.

37   An entity shall consider the terms of the contract, as well as any laws that apply to the
     contract, when evaluating whether it has an enforceable right to payment for performance
     completed to date in accordance with paragraph 35(c). The right to payment for
     performance completed to date does not need to be for a fixed amount. However, at all
     times throughout the duration of the contract, the entity must be entitled to an amount that
     at least compensates the entity for performance completed to date if the contract is
     terminated by the customer or another party for reasons other than the entity's failure to
     perform as promised. Paragraphs B9­B13 provide guidance for assessing the existence
     and enforceability of a right to payment and whether an entity's right to payment would
     entitle the entity to be paid for its performance completed to date.

     Performance obligations satisfied at a point in time

38    If a performance obligation is not satisfied over time in accordance with paragraphs 35­
     37, an entity satisfies the performance obligation at a point in time. To determine the
     point in time at which a customer obtains control of a promised asset and the entity
     satisfies a performance obligation, the entity shall consider the requirements for control
     in paragraphs 31­34. In addition, an entity shall consider indicators of the transfer of
     control, which include, but are not limited to, the following:

     (a)    The entity has a present right to payment for the asset--if a customer is presently
            obliged to pay for an asset, then that may indicate that the customer has obtained
            the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining
            benefits from, the asset in exchange.

     (b)    The customer has legal title to the asset--legal title may indicate which party to a
            contract has the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the
            remaining benefits from, an asset or to restrict the access of other entities to those
            benefits. Therefore, the transfer of legal title of an asset may indicate that the
            customer has obtained control of the asset. If an entity retains legal title solely as
            protection against the customer's failure to pay, those rights of the entity would
            not preclude the customer from obtaining control of an asset.

     (c)    The entity has transferred physical possession of the asset--the customer's
            physical possession of an asset may indicate that the customer has the ability to
            direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the
            asset or to restrict the access of other entities to those benefits. However, physical
            possession may not coincide with control of an asset. For example, in some
            repurchase agreements and in some consignment arrangements, a customer or
            consignee may have physical possession of an asset that the entity controls.
            Conversely, in some bill-and-hold arrangements, the entity may have physical
            possession of an asset that the customer controls. Paragraphs B64­B76, B77­B78
            and B79­B82 provide guidance on accounting for repurchase agreements,
            consignment arrangements and bill-and-hold arrangements, respectively.

     (d)    The customer has the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the asset--the
            transfer of the significant risks and rewards of ownership of an asset to the
            customer may indicate that the customer has obtained the ability to direct the use
            of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the asset. However,
            when evaluating the risks and rewards of ownership of a promised asset, an entity
            shall exclude any risks that give rise to a separate performance obligation in
            addition to the performance obligation to transfer the asset. For example, an entity
            may have transferred control of an asset to a customer but not yet satisfied an
            additional performance obligation to provide maintenance services related to the
            transferred asset.

     (e)    The customer has accepted the asset--the customer's acceptance of an asset may
            indicate that it has obtained the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially
            all of the remaining benefits from, the asset. To evaluate the effect of a
            contractual customer acceptance clause on when control of an asset is transferred,
            an entity shall consider the guidance in paragraphs B83­B86.

     Measuring progress towards complete satisfaction of a performance obligation

39   For each performance obligation satisfied over time in accordance with paragraphs 35­
     37, an entity shall recognise revenue over time by measuring the progress towards
     complete satisfaction of that performance obligation. The objective when measuring
     progress is to depict an entity's performance in transferring control of goods or services
     promised to a customer (ie the satisfaction of an entity's performance obligation).

40   An entity shall apply a single method of measuring progress for each performance
     obligation satisfied over time and the entity shall apply that method consistently to
     similar performance obligations and in similar circumstances. At the end of each
     reporting period, an entity shall remeasure its progress towards complete satisfaction of a
     performance obligation satisfied over time.

     Methods for measuring progress

41   Appropriate methods of measuring progress include output methods and input methods.
     Paragraphs B14­B19 provide guidance for using output methods and input methods to
     measure an entity's progress towards complete satisfaction of a performance obligation.
     In determining the appropriate method for measuring progress, an entity shall consider
     the nature of the good or service that the entity promised to transfer to the customer.

42   When applying a method for measuring progress, an entity shall exclude from the
     measure of progress any goods or services for which the entity does not transfer control
     to a customer. Conversely, an entity shall include in the measure of progress any goods or
     services for which the entity does transfer control to a customer when satisfying that
     performance obligation.

43   As circumstances change over time, an entity shall update its measure of progress to
     reflect any changes in the outcome of the performance obligation. Such changes to an
     entity's measure of progress shall be accounted for as a change in accounting estimate in
     accordance with Ind AS 8, Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and
     Errors.

     Reasonable measures of progress
44   An entity shall recognise revenue for a performance obligation satisfied over time only if
     the entity can reasonably measure its progress towards complete satisfaction of the
     performance obligation. An entity would not be able to reasonably measure its progress
     towards complete satisfaction of a performance obligation if it lacks reliable information
     that would be required to apply an appropriate method of measuring progress.

45   In some circumstances (for example, in the early stages of a contract), an entity may not
     be able to reasonably measure the outcome of a performance obligation, but the entity
     expects to recover the costs incurred in satisfying the performance obligation. In those
     circumstances, the entity shall recognise revenue only to the extent of the costs incurred
     until such time that it can reasonably measure the outcome of the performance obligation.

Measurement
46   When (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied, an entity shall recognise as
     revenue the amount of the transaction price (which excludes estimates of variable
     consideration that are constrained in accordance with paragraphs 56­58) that is
     allocated to that performance obligation.

     Determining the transaction price

47   An entity shall consider the terms of the contract and its customary business
     practices to determine the transaction price. The transaction price is the amount of
     consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring
     promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of
     third parties (for example, some sales taxes). The consideration promised in a
     contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both.

48   The nature, timing and amount of consideration promised by a customer affect the
     estimate of the transaction price. When determining the transaction price, an entity shall
     consider the effects of all of the following:

     (a)    variable consideration (see paragraphs 50­55 and 59);

     (b)    constraining estimates of variable consideration (see paragraphs 56­58);

     (c)    the existence of a significant financing component in the contract (see paragraphs
            60­65);

     (d)    non-cash consideration (see paragraphs 66­69); and

     (e)    consideration payable to a customer (see paragraphs 70­72).

49   For the purpose of determining the transaction price, an entity shall assume that the goods
     or services will be transferred to the customer as promised in accordance with the
     existing contract and that the contract will not be cancelled, renewed or modified.
     Variable consideration

50   If the consideration promised in a contract includes a variable amount, an entity shall
     estimate the amount of consideration to which the entity will be entitled in exchange for
     transferring the promised goods or services to a customer.

51   An amount of consideration can vary because of discounts, rebates, refunds, credits, price
     concessions, incentives, performance bonuses, penalties or other similar items. The
     promised consideration can also vary if an entity's entitlement to the consideration is
     contingent on the occurrence or non-occurrence of a future event. For example, an
     amount of consideration would be variable if either a product was sold with a right of
     return or a fixed amount is promised as a performance bonus on achievement of a
     specified milestone.

52   The variability relating to the consideration promised by a customer may be explicitly
     stated in the contract. In addition to the terms of the contract, the promised consideration
     is variable if either of the following circumstances exists:

     (a)    the customer has a valid expectation arising from an entity's customary business
            practices, published policies or specific statements that the entity will accept an
            amount of consideration that is less than the price stated in the contract. That is, it
            is expected that the entity will offer a price concession. Depending on the
            jurisdiction, industry or customer this offer may be referred to as a discount,
            rebate, refund or credit.

     (b)    other facts and circumstances indicate that the entity's intention, when entering
            into the contract with the customer, is to offer a price concession to the customer.

53   An entity shall estimate an amount of variable consideration by using either of the
     following methods, depending on which method the entity expects to better predict the
     amount of consideration to which it will be entitled:

     (a)    The expected value--the expected value is the sum of probability-weighted
            amounts in a range of possible consideration amounts. An expected value may be
            an appropriate estimate of the amount of variable consideration if an entity has a
            large number of contracts with similar characteristics.

     (b)    The most likely amount--the most likely amount is the single most likely amount
            in a range of possible consideration amounts (ie the single most likely outcome of
            the contract). The most likely amount may be an appropriate estimate of the
            amount of variable consideration if the contract has only two possible outcomes
            (for example, an entity either achieves a performance bonus or does not).

54   An entity shall apply one method consistently throughout the contract when estimating
     the effect of an uncertainty on an amount of variable consideration to which the entity
     will be entitled. In addition, an entity shall consider all the information (historical, current
     and forecast) that is reasonably available to the entity and shall identify a reasonable
     number of possible consideration amounts. The information that an entity uses to
     estimate the amount of variable consideration would typically be similar to the
     information that the entity's management uses during the bid-and-proposal process and in
     establishing prices for promised goods or services.

     Refund liabilities

55   An entity shall recognise a refund liability if the entity receives consideration from a
     customer and expects to refund some or all of that consideration to the customer. A
     refund liability is measured at the amount of consideration received (or receivable) for
     which the entity does not expect to be entitled (ie amounts not included in the transaction
     price). The refund liability (and corresponding change in the transaction price and,
     therefore, the contract liability) shall be updated at the end of each reporting period for
     changes in circumstances. To account for a refund liability relating to a sale with a right
     of return, an entity shall apply the guidance in paragraphs B20­B27.

     Constraining estimates of variable consideration

56   An entity shall include in the transaction price some or all of an amount of variable
     consideration estimated in accordance with paragraph 53 only to the extent that it is
     highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue
     recognised will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration
     is subsequently resolved.

57   In assessing whether it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the amount of
     cumulative revenue recognised will not occur once the uncertainty related to the variable
     consideration is subsequently resolved, an entity shall consider both the likelihood and
     the magnitude of the revenue reversal. Factors that could increase the likelihood or the
     magnitude of a revenue reversal include, but are not limited to, any of the following:

     (a)    the amount of consideration is highly susceptible to factors outside the entity's
            influence. Those factors may include volatility in a market, the judgement or
            actions of third parties, weather conditions and a high risk of obsolescence of the
            promised good or service.

     (b)    the uncertainty about the amount of consideration is not expected to be resolved
            for a long period of time.

     (c)    the entity's experience (or other evidence) with similar types of contracts is
            limited, or that experience (or other evidence) has limited predictive value.

     (d)    the entity has a practice of either offering a broad range of price concessions or
            changing the payment terms and conditions of similar contracts in similar
            circumstances.
     (e)    the contract has a large number and broad range of possible consideration
            amounts.

58   An entity shall apply paragraph B63 to account for consideration in the form of a sales-
     based or usage-based royalty that is promised in exchange for a licence of intellectual
     property.

     Reassessment of variable consideration

59   At the end of each reporting period, an entity shall update the estimated transaction price
     (including updating its assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is
     constrained) to represent faithfully the circumstances present at the end of the reporting
     period and the changes in circumstances during the reporting period. The entity shall
     account for changes in the transaction price in accordance with paragraphs 87­90.

     The existence of a significant financing component in the contract

60   In determining the transaction price, an entity shall adjust the promised amount of
     consideration for the effects of the time value of money if the timing of payments agreed
     to by the parties to the contract (either explicitly or implicitly) provides the customer or
     the entity with a significant benefit of financing the transfer of goods or services to the
     customer. In those circumstances, the contract contains a significant financing
     component. A significant financing component may exist regardless of whether the
     promise of financing is explicitly stated in the contract or implied by the payment terms
     agreed to by the parties to the contract.

61   The objective when adjusting the promised amount of consideration for a significant
     financing component is for an entity to recognise revenue at an amount that reflects the
     price that a customer would have paid for the promised goods or services if the customer
     had paid cash for those goods or services when (or as) they transfer to the customer (ie
     the cash selling price). An entity shall consider all relevant facts and circumstances in
     assessing whether a contract contains a financing component and whether that financing
     component is significant to the contract, including both of the following:

     (a)    the difference, if any, between the amount of promised consideration and the cash
            selling price of the promised goods or services; and

     (b)    the combined effect of both of the following:

            (i)     the expected length of time between when the entity transfers the
                    promised goods or services to the customer and when the customer pays
                    for those goods or services; and

            (ii)    the prevailing interest rates in the relevant market.
62   Notwithstanding the assessment in paragraph 61, a contract with a customer would not
     have a significant financing component if any of the following factors exist:

     (a)    the customer paid for the goods or services in advance and the timing of the
            transfer of those goods or services is at the discretion of the customer.

     (b)    a substantial amount of the consideration promised by the customer is variable
            and the amount or timing of that consideration varies on the basis of the
            occurrence or non-occurrence of a future event that is not substantially within the
            control of the customer or the entity (for example, if the consideration is a sales-
            based royalty).

     (c)    the difference between the promised consideration and the cash selling price of
            the good or service (as described in paragraph 61) arises for reasons other than the
            provision of finance to either the customer or the entity, and the difference
            between those amounts is proportional to the reason for the difference. For
            example, the payment terms might provide the entity or the customer with
            protection from the other party failing to adequately complete some or all of its
            obligations under the contract.

63   As a practical expedient, an entity need not adjust the promised amount of consideration
     for the effects of a significant financing component if the entity expects, at contract
     inception, that the period between when the entity transfers a promised good or service to
     a customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less.

64   To meet the objective in paragraph 61 when adjusting the promised amount of
     consideration for a significant financing component, an entity shall use the discount rate
     that would be reflected in a separate financing transaction between the entity and its
     customer at contract inception. That rate would reflect the credit characteristics of the
     party receiving financing in the contract, as well as any collateral or security provided by
     the customer or the entity, including assets transferred in the contract. An entity may be
     able to determine that rate by identifying the rate that discounts the nominal amount of
     the promised consideration to the price that the customer would pay in cash for the goods
     or services when (or as) they transfer to the customer. After contract inception, an entity
     shall not update the discount rate for changes in interest rates or other circumstances
     (such as a change in the assessment of the customer's credit risk).

65   An entity shall present the effects of financing (interest revenue or interest expense)
     separately from revenue from contracts with customers in the statement of profit and loss.
     Interest revenue or interest expense is recognised only to the extent that a contract asset
     (or receivable) or a contract liability is recognised in accounting for a contract with a
     customer.
     Non-cash consideration

66   To determine the transaction price for contracts in which a customer promises
     consideration in a form other than cash, an entity shall measure the non-cash
     consideration (or promise of non-cash consideration) at fair value.

67   If an entity cannot reasonably estimate the fair value of the non-cash consideration, the
     entity shall measure the consideration indirectly by reference to the stand-alone selling
     price of the goods or services promised to the customer (or class of customer) in
     exchange for the consideration.

68   The fair value of the non-cash consideration may vary because of the form of the
     consideration (for example, a change in the price of a share to which an entity is entitled
     to receive from a customer). If the fair value of the non-cash consideration promised by a
     customer varies for reasons other than only the form of the consideration (for example,
     the fair value could vary because of the entity's performance), an entity shall apply the
     requirements in paragraphs 56­58.

69   If a customer contributes goods or services (for example, materials, equipment or labour)
     to facilitate an entity's fulfilment of the contract, the entity shall assess whether it obtains
     control of those contributed goods or services. If so, the entity shall account for the
     contributed goods or services as non-cash consideration received from the customer.

     Consideration payable to a customer

70   Consideration payable to a customer includes cash amounts that an entity pays, or expects
     to pay, to the customer (or to other parties that purchase the entity's goods or services
     from the customer). Consideration payable to a customer also includes credit or other
     items (for example, a coupon or voucher) that can be applied against amounts owed to the
     entity (or to other parties that purchase the entity's goods or services from the customer).
     An entity shall account for consideration payable to a customer as a reduction of the
     transaction price and, therefore, of revenue unless the payment to the customer is in
     exchange for a distinct good or service (as described in paragraphs 26­30) that the
     customer transfers to the entity. If the consideration payable to a customer includes a
     variable amount, an entity shall estimate the transaction price (including assessing
     whether the estimate of variable consideration is constrained) in accordance with
     paragraphs 50­58.

71   If consideration payable to a customer is a payment for a distinct good or service from the
     customer, then an entity shall account for the purchase of the good or service in the same
     way that it accounts for other purchases from suppliers. If the amount of consideration
     payable to the customer exceeds the fair value of the distinct good or service that the
     entity receives from the customer, then the entity shall account for such an excess as a
     reduction of the transaction price. If the entity cannot reasonably estimate the fair value
     of the good or service received from the customer, it shall account for all of the
     consideration payable to the customer as a reduction of the transaction price.
72   Accordingly, if consideration payable to a customer is accounted for as a reduction of the
     transaction price, an entity shall recognise the reduction of revenue when (or as) the later
     of either of the following events occurs:

     (a)    the entity recognises revenue for the transfer of the related goods or services to
            the customer; and

     (b)    the entity pays or promises to pay the consideration (even if the payment is
            conditional on a future event). That promise might be implied by the entity's
            customary business practices.

     Allocating the transaction price to performance obligations

73   The objective when allocating the transaction price is for an entity to allocate the
     transaction price to each performance obligation (or distinct good or service) in an
     amount that depicts the amount of consideration to which the entity expects to be
     entitled in exchange for transferring the promised goods or services to the customer.

74   To meet the allocation objective, an entity shall allocate the transaction price to each
     performance obligation identified in the contract on a relative stand-alone selling price
     basis in accordance with paragraphs 76­80, except as specified in paragraphs 81­83 (for
     allocating discounts) and paragraphs 84­86 (for allocating consideration that includes
     variable amounts).

75   Paragraphs 76­86 do not apply if a contract has only one performance obligation.
     However, paragraphs 84­86 may apply if an entity promises to transfer a series of
     distinct goods or services identified as a single performance obligation in accordance
     with paragraph 22(b) and the promised consideration includes variable amounts.

     Allocation based on stand-alone selling prices

76   To allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone
     selling price basis, an entity shall determine the stand-alone selling price at contract
     inception of the distinct good or service underlying each performance obligation in the
     contract and allocate the transaction price in proportion to those stand-alone selling
     prices.

77   The stand-alone selling price is the price at which an entity would sell a promised good or
     service separately to a customer. The best evidence of a stand-alone selling price is the
     observable price of a good or service when the entity sells that good or service separately
     in similar circumstances and to similar customers. A contractually stated price or a list
     price for a good or service may be (but shall not be presumed to be) the stand-alone
     selling price of that good or service.
78   If a stand-alone selling price is not directly observable, an entity shall estimate the stand-
     alone selling price at an amount that would result in the allocation of the transaction price
     meeting the allocation objective in paragraph 73. When estimating a stand-alone selling
     price, an entity shall consider all information (including market conditions, entity-specific
     factors and information about the customer or class of customer) that is reasonably
     available to the entity. In doing so, an entity shall maximise the use of observable inputs
     and apply estimation methods consistently in similar circumstances.

79   Suitable methods for estimating the stand-alone selling price of a good or service include,
     but are not limited to, the following:

     (a)    Adjusted market assessment approach--an entity could evaluate the market in
            which it sells goods or services and estimate the price that a customer in that
            market would be willing to pay for those goods or services. That approach might
            also include referring to prices from the entity's competitors for similar goods or
            services and adjusting those prices as necessary to reflect the entity's costs and
            margins.

     (b)    Expected cost plus a margin approach--an entity could forecast its expected costs
            of satisfying a performance obligation and then add an appropriate margin for that
            good or service.

     (c)    Residual approach--an entity may estimate the stand-alone selling price by
            reference to the total transaction price less the sum of the observable stand-alone
            selling prices of other goods or services promised in the contract. However, an
            entity may use a residual approach to estimate, in accordance with paragraph 78,
            the stand-alone selling price of a good or service only if one of the following
            criteria is met:

            (i)     the entity sells the same good or service to different customers (at or near
                    the same time) for a broad range of amounts (ie the selling price is highly
                    variable because a representative stand-alone selling price is not
                    discernible from past transactions or other observable evidence); or

            (ii)    the entity has not yet established a price for that good or service and the
                    good or service has not previously been sold on a stand-alone basis (ie the
                    selling price is uncertain).

80   A combination of methods may need to be used to estimate the stand-alone selling prices
     of the goods or services promised in the contract if two or more of those goods or
     services have highly variable or uncertain stand-alone selling prices. For example, an
     entity may use a residual approach to estimate the aggregate stand-alone selling price for
     those promised goods or services with highly variable or uncertain stand-alone selling
     prices and then use another method to estimate the stand-alone selling prices of the
     individual goods or services relative to that estimated aggregate stand-alone selling price
     determined by the residual approach. When an entity uses a combination of methods to
     estimate the stand-alone selling price of each promised good or service in the contract,
     the entity shall evaluate whether allocating the transaction price at those estimated stand-
     alone selling prices would be consistent with the allocation objective in paragraph 73 and
     the requirements for estimating stand-alone selling prices in paragraph 78.

     Allocation of a discount

81   A customer receives a discount for purchasing a bundle of goods or services if the sum of
     the stand-alone selling prices of those promised goods or services in the contract exceeds
     the promised consideration in a contract. Except when an entity has observable evidence
     in accordance with paragraph 82 that the entire discount relates to only one or more, but
     not all, performance obligations in a contract, the entity shall allocate a discount
     proportionately to all performance obligations in the contract. The proportionate
     allocation of the discount in those circumstances is a consequence of the entity allocating
     the transaction price to each performance obligation on the basis of the relative stand-
     alone selling prices of the underlying distinct goods or services.

82   An entity shall allocate a discount entirely to one or more, but not all, performance
     obligations in the contract if all of the following criteria are met:

     (a)    the entity regularly sells each distinct good or service (or each bundle of distinct
            goods or services) in the contract on a stand-alone basis;

     (b)    the entity also regularly sells on a stand-alone basis a bundle (or bundles) of some
            of those distinct goods or services at a discount to the stand-alone selling prices of
            the goods or services in each bundle; and

     (c)    the discount attributable to each bundle of goods or services described in
            paragraph 82(b) is substantially the same as the discount in the contract and an
            analysis of the goods or services in each bundle provides observable evidence of
            the performance obligation (or performance obligations) to which the entire
            discount in the contract belongs.

83   If a discount is allocated entirely to one or more performance obligations in the contract
     in accordance with paragraph 82, an entity shall allocate the discount before using the
     residual approach to estimate the stand-alone selling price of a good or service in
     accordance with paragraph 79(c).

     Allocation of variable consideration

84   Variable consideration that is promised in a contract may be attributable to the entire
     contract or to a specific part of the contract, such as either of the following:

     (a)    one or more, but not all, performance obligations in the contract (for example, a
            bonus may be contingent on an entity transferring a promised good or service
            within a specified period of time); or
     (b)    one or more, but not all, distinct goods or services promised in a series of distinct
            goods or services that forms part of a single performance obligation in accordance
            with paragraph 22(b) (for example, the consideration promised for the second
            year of a two-year cleaning service contract will increase on the basis of
            movements in a specified inflation index).

85   An entity shall allocate a variable amount (and subsequent changes to that amount)
     entirely to a performance obligation or to a distinct good or service that forms part of a
     single performance obligation in accordance with paragraph 22(b) if both of the
     following criteria are met:

     (a)    the terms of a variable payment relate specifically to the entity's efforts to satisfy
            the performance obligation or transfer the distinct good or service (or to a specific
            outcome from satisfying the performance obligation or transferring the distinct
            good or service); and

     (b)    allocating the variable amount of consideration entirely to the performance
            obligation or the distinct good or service is consistent with the allocation objective
            in paragraph 73 when considering all of the performance obligations and payment
            terms in the contract.

86   The allocation requirements in paragraphs 73­83 shall be applied to allocate the
     remaining amount of the transaction price that does not meet the criteria in paragraph 85.

     Changes in the transaction price
87   After contract inception, the transaction price can change for various reasons, including
     the resolution of uncertain events or other changes in circumstances that change the
     amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for the
     promised goods or services.

88   An entity shall allocate to the performance obligations in the contract any subsequent
     changes in the transaction price on the same basis as at contract inception. Consequently,
     an entity shall not reallocate the transaction price to reflect changes in stand-alone selling
     prices after contract inception. Amounts allocated to a satisfied performance obligation
     shall be recognised as revenue, or as a reduction of revenue, in the period in which the
     transaction price changes.

89   An entity shall allocate a change in the transaction price entirely to one or more, but not
     all, performance obligations or distinct goods or services promised in a series that forms
     part of a single performance obligation in accordance with paragraph 22(b) only if the
     criteria in paragraph 85 on allocating variable consideration are met.

90   An entity shall account for a change in the transaction price that arises as a result of a
     contract modification in accordance with paragraphs 18­21. However, for a change in the
     transaction price that occurs after a contract modification, an entity shall apply
     paragraphs 87­89 to allocate the change in the transaction price in whichever of the
     following ways is applicable:

     (a)    An entity shall allocate the change in the transaction price to the performance
            obligations identified in the contract before the modification if, and to the extent
            that, the change in the transaction price is attributable to an amount of variable
            consideration promised before the modification and the modification is accounted
            for in accordance with paragraph 21(a).

     (b)    In all other cases in which the modification was not accounted for as a separate
            contract in accordance with paragraph 20, an entity shall allocate the change in
            the transaction price to the performance obligations in the modified contract (ie
            the performance obligations that were unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied
            immediately after the modification).

Contract costs
     Incremental costs of obtaining a contract

91   An entity shall recognise as an asset the incremental costs of obtaining a contract
     with a customer if the entity expects to recover those costs.

92   The incremental costs of obtaining a contract are those costs that an entity incurs to
     obtain a contract with a customer that it would not have incurred if the contract had not
     been obtained (for example, a sales commission).

93   Costs to obtain a contract that would have been incurred regardless of whether the
     contract was obtained shall be recognised as an expense when incurred, unless those costs
     are explicitly chargeable to the customer regardless of whether the contract is obtained.

94   As a practical expedient, an entity may recognise the incremental costs of obtaining a
     contract as an expense when incurred if the amortisation period of the asset that the entity
     otherwise would have recognised is one year or less.

     Costs to fulfil a contract

95   If the costs incurred in fulfilling a contract with a customer are not within the scope
     of another Standard (for example, Ind AS 2, Inventories, Ind AS 16, Property, Plant
     and Equipment or Ind AS 38, Intangible Assets), an entity shall recognise an asset
     from the costs incurred to fulfil a contract only if those costs meet all of the
     following criteria:

     (a)    the costs relate directly to a contract or to an anticipated contract that the
            entity can specifically identify (for example, costs relating to services to be
            provided under renewal of an existing contract or costs of designing an asset
            to be transferred under a specific contract that has not yet been approved);

     (b)    the costs generate or enhance resources of the entity that will be used in
            satisfying (or in continuing to satisfy) performance obligations in the future;
            and

     (c)    the costs are expected to be recovered.

96   For costs incurred in fulfilling a contract with a customer that are within the scope of
     another Standard, an entity shall account for those costs in accordance with those other
     Standards.

97   Costs that relate directly to a contract (or a specific anticipated contract) include any of
     the following:

     (a)    direct labour (for example, salaries and wages of employees who provide the
            promised services directly to the customer);

     (b)    direct materials (for example, supplies used in providing the promised services to
            a customer);

     (c)    allocations of costs that relate directly to the contract or to contract activities (for
            example, costs of contract management and supervision, insurance and
            depreciation of tools and equipment used in fulfilling the contract);

     (d)    costs that are explicitly chargeable to the customer under the contract; and

     (e)    other costs that are incurred only because an entity entered into the contract (for
            example, payments to subcontractors).

98   An entity shall recognise the following costs as expenses when incurred:

     (a)    general and administrative costs (unless those costs are explicitly chargeable to
            the customer under the contract, in which case an entity shall evaluate those costs
            in accordance with paragraph 97);

     (b)    costs of wasted materials, labour or other resources to fulfil the contract that were
            not reflected in the price of the contract;

     (c)    costs that relate to satisfied performance obligations (or partially satisfied
            performance obligations) in the contract (ie costs that relate to past performance);
            and
      (d)    costs for which an entity cannot distinguish whether the costs relate to unsatisfied
             performance obligations or to satisfied performance obligations (or partially
             satisfied performance obligations).

      Amortisation and impairment
99    An asset recognised in accordance with paragraph 91 or 95 shall be amortised on a
      systematic basis that is consistent with the transfer to the customer of the goods or
      services to which the asset relates. The asset may relate to goods or services to be
      transferred under a specific anticipated contract (as described in paragraph 95(a)).

100   An entity shall update the amortisation to reflect a significant change in the entity's
      expected timing of transfer to the customer of the goods or services to which the asset
      relates. Such a change shall be accounted for as a change in accounting estimate in
      accordance with Ind AS 8.

101   An entity shall recognise an impairment loss in profit or loss to the extent that the
      carrying amount of an asset recognised in accordance with paragraph 91 or 95 exceeds:

      (a)    the remaining amount of consideration that the entity expects to receive in
             exchange for the goods or services to which the asset relates; less

      (b)    the costs that relate directly to providing those goods or services and that have not
             been recognised as expenses (see paragraph 97).

102   For the purposes of applying paragraph 101 to determine the amount of consideration that
      an entity expects to receive, an entity shall use the principles for determining the
      transaction price (except for the requirements in paragraphs 56­58 on constraining
      estimates of variable consideration) and adjust that amount to reflect the effects of the
      customer's credit risk.

103   Before an entity recognises an impairment loss for an asset recognised in accordance with
      paragraph 91 or 95, the entity shall recognise any impairment loss for assets related to the
      contract that are recognised in accordance with another Standard (for example, Ind AS 2,
      Ind AS 16 and Ind AS 38). After applying the impairment test in paragraph 101, an entity
      shall include the resulting carrying amount of the asset recognised in accordance with
      paragraph 91 or 95 in the carrying amount of the cash-generating unit to which it belongs
      for the purpose of applying Ind AS 36, Impairment of Assets, to that cash-generating unit.

104   An entity shall recognise in profit or loss a reversal of some or all of an impairment loss
      previously recognised in accordance with paragraph 101 when the impairment conditions
      no longer exist or have improved. The increased carrying amount of the asset shall not
      exceed the amount that would have been determined (net of amortisation) if no
      impairment loss had been recognised previously.

Presentation
105   When either party to a contract has performed, an entity shall present the contract
      in the balance sheet as a contract asset or a contract liability, depending on the
      relationship between the entity's performance and the customer's payment. An
      entity shall present any unconditional rights to consideration separately as a
      receivable.

106   If a customer pays consideration, or an entity has a right to an amount of consideration
      that is unconditional (ie a receivable), before the entity transfers a good or service to the
      customer, the entity shall present the contract as a contract liability when the payment is
      made or the payment is due (whichever is earlier). A contract liability is an entity's
      obligation to transfer goods or services to a customer for which the entity has received
      consideration (or an amount of consideration is due) from the customer.

107   If an entity performs by transferring goods or services to a customer before the customer
      pays consideration or before payment is due, the entity shall present the contract as a
      contract asset, excluding any amounts presented as a receivable. A contract asset is an
      entity's right to consideration in exchange for goods or services that the entity has
      transferred to a customer. An entity shall assess a contract asset for impairment in
      accordance with Ind AS 109. An impairment of a contract asset shall be measured,
      presented and disclosed on the same basis as a financial asset that is within the scope of
      Ind AS 109 (see also paragraph 113(b)).

108   A receivable is an entity's right to consideration that is unconditional. A right to
      consideration is unconditional if only the passage of time is required before payment of
      that consideration is due. For example, an entity would recognise a receivable if it has a
      present right to payment even though that amount may be subject to refund in the future.
      An entity shall account for a receivable in accordance with Ind AS 109. Upon initial
      recognition of a receivable from a contract with a customer, any difference between the
      measurement of the receivable in accordance with Ind AS 109 and the corresponding
      amount of revenue recognised shall be presented as an expense (for example, as an
      impairment loss).

109   This Standard uses the terms `contract asset' and `contract liability' but does not prohibit
      an entity from using alternative descriptions in the balance sheet for those items. If an
      entity uses an alternative description for a contract asset, the entity shall provide
      sufficient information for a user of the financial statements to distinguish between
      receivables and contract assets.

Disclosure
110   The objective of the disclosure requirements is for an entity to disclose sufficient
      information to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature,
      amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts
      with customers. To achieve that objective, an entity shall disclose qualitative and
      quantitative information about all of the following:
      (a)    its contracts with customers (see paragraphs 113­122);

      (b)    the significant judgements, and changes in the judgements, made in applying
             this Standard to those contracts (see paragraphs 123­126); and

      (c)    any assets recognised from the costs to obtain or fulfil a contract with a
             customer in accordance with paragraph 91 or 95 (see paragraphs 127­128).

111   An entity shall consider the level of detail necessary to satisfy the disclosure objective
      and how much emphasis to place on each of the various requirements. An entity shall
      aggregate or disaggregate disclosures so that useful information is not obscured by either
      the inclusion of a large amount of insignificant detail or the aggregation of items that
      have substantially different characteristics.

112   An entity need not disclose information in accordance with this Standard if it has
      provided the information in accordance with another Standard.

      Contracts with customers
113   An entity shall disclose all of the following amounts for the reporting period unless those
      amounts are presented separately in the statement of profit and loss in accordance with
      other Standards:

      (a)    revenue recognised from contracts with customers, which the entity shall disclose
             separately from its other sources of revenue; and

      (b)    any impairment losses recognised (in accordance with Ind AS 109) on any
             receivables or contract assets arising from an entity's contracts with customers,
             which the entity shall disclose separately from impairment losses from other
             contracts.

      Disaggregation of revenue

114   An entity shall disaggregate revenue recognised from contracts with customers into
      categories that depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash
      flows are affected by economic factors. An entity shall apply the guidance in paragraphs
      B87­B89 when selecting the categories to use to disaggregate revenue.

115   In addition, an entity shall disclose sufficient information to enable users of financial
      statements to understand the relationship between the disclosure of disaggregated revenue
      (in accordance with paragraph 114) and revenue information that is disclosed for each
      reportable segment, if the entity applies Ind AS 108, Operating Segments.

      Contract balances
116   An entity shall disclose all of the following:

      (a)    the opening and closing balances of receivables, contract assets and contract
             liabilities from contracts with customers, if not otherwise separately presented or
             disclosed;

      (b)    revenue recognised in the reporting period that was included in the contract
             liability balance at the beginning of the period; and

      (c)    revenue recognised in the reporting period from performance obligations satisfied
             (or partially satisfied) in previous periods (for example, changes in transaction
             price).

117   An entity shall explain how the timing of satisfaction of its performance obligations (see
      paragraph 119(a)) relates to the typical timing of payment (see paragraph 119(b)) and the
      effect that those factors have on the contract asset and the contract liability balances. The
      explanation provided may use qualitative information.

118   An entity shall provide an explanation of the significant changes in the contract asset and
      the contract liability balances during the reporting period. The explanation shall include
      qualitative and quantitative information. Examples of changes in the entity's balances of
      contract assets and contract liabilities include any of the following:

      (a)    changes due to business combinations;

      (b)    cumulative catch-up adjustments to revenue that affect the corresponding contract
             asset or contract liability, including adjustments arising from a change in the
             measure of progress, a change in an estimate of the transaction price (including
             any changes in the assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is
             constrained) or a contract modification;

      (c)    impairment of a contract asset;

      (d)    a change in the time frame for a right to consideration to become unconditional (ie
             for a contract asset to be reclassified to a receivable); and

      (e)    a change in the time frame for a performance obligation to be satisfied (ie for the
             recognition of revenue arising from a contract liability).

      Performance obligations

119   An entity shall disclose information about its performance obligations in contracts with
      customers, including a description of all of the following:

      (a)    when the entity typically satisfies its performance obligations (for example, upon
             shipment, upon delivery, as services are rendered or upon completion of service),
             including when performance obligations are satisfied in a bill-and-hold
             arrangement;

      (b)    the significant payment terms (for example, when payment is typically due,
             whether the contract has a significant financing component, whether the
             consideration amount is variable and whether the estimate of variable
             consideration is typically constrained in accordance with paragraphs 56­58);

      (c)    the nature of the goods or services that the entity has promised to transfer,
             highlighting any performance obligations to arrange for another party to transfer
             goods or services (ie if the entity is acting as an agent);

      (d)    obligations for returns, refunds and other similar obligations; and

      (e)    types of warranties and related obligations.

      Transaction price allocated to the remaining performance obligations

120   An entity shall disclose the following information about its remaining performance
      obligations:

      (a)    the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the performance
             obligations that are unsatisfied (or partially unsatisfied) as of the end of the
             reporting period; and

      (b)    an explanation of when the entity expects to recognise as revenue the amount
             disclosed in accordance with paragraph 120(a), which the entity shall disclose in
             either of the following ways:

             (i)     on a quantitative basis using the time bands that would be most
                     appropriate for the duration of the remaining performance obligations; or

             (ii)    by using qualitative information.

121   As a practical expedient, an entity need not disclose the information in paragraph 120 for
      a performance obligation if either of the following conditions is met:

      (a)    the performance obligation is part of a contract that has an original expected
             duration of one year or less; or

      (b)    the entity recognises revenue from the satisfaction of the performance obligation
             in accordance with paragraph B16.

122   An entity shall explain qualitatively whether it is applying the practical expedient in
      paragraph 121 and whether any consideration from contracts with customers is not
      included in the transaction price and, therefore, not included in the information disclosed
      in accordance with paragraph 120. For example, an estimate of the transaction price
      would not include any estimated amounts of variable consideration that are constrained
      (see paragraphs 56­58).

      Significant judgements in the application of this Standard
123   An entity shall disclose the judgements, and changes in the judgements, made in applying
      this Standard that significantly affect the determination of the amount and timing of
      revenue from contracts with customers. In particular, an entity shall explain the
      judgements, and changes in the judgements, used in determining both of the following:

      (a)    the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations (see paragraphs 124­125);
             and

      (b)    the transaction price and the amounts allocated to performance obligations (see
             paragraph 126).

      Determining the timing of satisfaction of performance obligations

124   For performance obligations that an entity satisfies over time, an entity shall disclose both
      of the following:

      (a)    the methods used to recognise revenue (for example, a description of the output
             methods or input methods used and how those methods are applied); and

      (b)    an explanation of why the methods used provide a faithful depiction of the
             transfer of goods or services.

125   For performance obligations satisfied at a point in time, an entity shall disclose the
      significant judgements made in evaluating when a customer obtains control of promised
      goods or services.

      Determining the transaction price and the amounts allocated to performance
      obligations

126   An entity shall disclose information about the methods, inputs and assumptions used for
      all of the following:

      (a)    determining the transaction price, which includes, but is not limited to, estimating
             variable consideration, adjusting the consideration for the effects of the time value
             of money and measuring non-cash consideration;

      (b)    assessing whether an estimate of variable consideration is constrained;
      (c)    allocating the transaction price, including estimating stand-alone selling prices of
             promised goods or services and allocating discounts and variable consideration to
             a specific part of the contract (if applicable); and

      (d)    measuring obligations for returns, refunds and other similar obligations.

      Assets recognised from the costs to obtain or fulfil a contract with a
      customer
127   An entity shall describe both of the following:

      (a)    the judgements made in determining the amount of the costs incurred to obtain or
             fulfil a contract with a customer (in accordance with paragraph 91 or 95); and

      (b)    the method it uses to determine the amortisation for each reporting period.

128   An entity shall disclose all of the following:

      (a)    the closing balances of assets recognised from the costs incurred to obtain or fulfil
             a contract with a customer (in accordance with paragraph 91 or 95), by main
             category of asset (for example, costs to obtain contracts with customers, pre-
             contract costs and setup costs); and

      (b)    the amount of amortisation and any impairment losses recognised in the reporting
             period.

      Practical expedients
129   If an entity elects to use the practical expedient in either paragraph 63 (about the
      existence of a significant financing component) or paragraph 94 (about the incremental
      costs of obtaining a contract), the entity shall disclose that fact.
Appendix A
Defined terms

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard.

 contract                       An agreement between two or more parties that creates
                                enforceable rights and obligations.

 contract asset                 An entity's right to consideration in exchange for goods or
                                services that the entity has transferred to a customer when that
                                right is conditioned on something other than the passage of time
                                (for example, the entity's future performance).

 contract liability             An entity's obligation to transfer goods or services to a
                                customer for which the entity has received consideration (or
                                the amount is due) from the customer.

 customer                       A party that has contracted with an entity to obtain goods or
                                services that are an output of the entity's ordinary activities in
                                exchange for consideration.

 income                         Increases in economic benefits during the accounting period in
                                the form of inflows or enhancements of assets or decreases of
                                liabilities that result in an increase in equity, other than those
                                relating to contributions from equity participants.

 performance                    A promise in a contract with a customer to transfer to the
 obligation                     customer either:

                                (a)   a good or service (or a bundle of goods or services) that
                                      is distinct; or

                                (b)   a series of distinct goods or services that are substantially
                                      the same and that have the same pattern of transfer to the
                                      customer.

 revenue                        Income arising in the course of an entity's ordinary activities.

 stand-alone selling            The price at which an entity would sell a promised good or
 price                          service separately to a customer.
 (of a good or service)
 transaction price              The amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be
 (for a contract with a         entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services
 customer)                      to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third
                                parties.
Appendix B
Application Guidance

This appendix is an integral part of the Standard. It describes the application of paragraphs 1­
29 and has the same authority as the other parts of the Standard.

B1     This application guidance is organised into the following categories:

       (a)    performance obligations satisfied over time (paragraphs B2­B13);

       (b)    methods for measuring progress towards complete satisfaction of a performance
              obligation (paragraphs B14­B19);

       (c)    sale with a right of return (paragraphs B20­B27);

       (d)    warranties (paragraphs B28­B33);

       (e)    principal versus agent considerations (paragraphs B34­B38);

       (f)    customer options for additional goods or services (paragraphs B39­B43);

       (g)    customers' unexercised rights (paragraphs B44­B47);

       (h)    non-refundable upfront fees (and some related costs) (paragraphs B48­B51);

       (i)    licensing (paragraphs B52­B63);

       (j)    repurchase agreements (paragraphs B64­B76);

       (k)    consignment arrangements (paragraphs B77­B78);

       (l)    bill-and-hold arrangements (paragraphs B79­B82);

       (m)    customer acceptance (paragraphs B83­B86); and

       (n)    disclosure of disaggregated revenue (paragraphs B87­B89).

       Performance obligations satisfied over time
B2     In accordance with paragraph 35, a performance obligation is satisfied over time if one of
       the following criteria is met:

       (a)    the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the
              entity's performance as the entity performs (see paragraphs B3­B4);
     (b)    the entity's performance creates or enhances an asset (for example, work in
            progress) that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced (see
            paragraph B5); or

     (c)    the entity's performance does not create an asset with an alternative use to the
            entity (see paragraphs B6­B8) and the entity has an enforceable right to payment
            for performance completed to date (see paragraphs B9­B13).

     Simultaneous receipt and consumption of the benefits of the entity's performance
     (paragraph 35(a))

B3   For some types of performance obligations, the assessment of whether a customer
     receives the benefits of an entity's performance as the entity performs and simultaneously
     consumes those benefits as they are received will be straightforward. Examples include
     routine or recurring services (such as a cleaning service) in which the receipt and
     simultaneous consumption by the customer of the benefits of the entity's performance
     can be readily identified.

B4   For other types of performance obligations, an entity may not be able to readily identify
     whether a customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits from the entity's
     performance as the entity performs. In those circumstances, a performance obligation is
     satisfied over time if an entity determines that another entity would not need to
     substantially re-perform the work that the entity has completed to date if that other entity
     were to fulfil the remaining performance obligation to the customer. In determining
     whether another entity would not need to substantially re-perform the work the entity has
     completed to date, an entity shall make both of the following assumptions:

     (a)    disregard potential contractual restrictions or practical limitations that otherwise
            would prevent the entity from transferring the remaining performance obligation
            to another entity; and

     (b)    presume that another entity fulfilling the remainder of the performance obligation
            would not have the benefit of any asset that is presently controlled by the entity
            and that would remain controlled by the entity if the performance obligation were
            to transfer to another entity.

     Customer controls the asset as it is created or enhanced (paragraph 35(b))

B5   In determining whether a customer controls an asset as it is created or enhanced in
     accordance with paragraph 35(b), an entity shall apply the requirements for control in
     paragraphs 31­34 and 38. The asset that is being created or enhanced (for example, a
     work-in-progress asset) could be either tangible or intangible.

     Entity's performance does not create an asset with an alternative use (paragraph
     35(c))
B6   In assessing whether an asset has an alternative use to an entity in accordance with
     paragraph 36, an entity shall consider the effects of contractual restrictions and practical
     limitations on the entity's ability to readily direct that asset for another use, such as
     selling it to a different customer. The possibility of the contract with the customer being
     terminated is not a relevant consideration in assessing whether the entity would be able to
     readily direct the asset for another use.

B7   A contractual restriction on an entity's ability to direct an asset for another use must be
     substantive for the asset not to have an alternative use to the entity. A contractual
     restriction is substantive if a customer could enforce its rights to the promised asset if the
     entity sought to direct the asset for another use. In contrast, a contractual restriction is not
     substantive if, for example, an asset is largely interchangeable with other assets that the
     entity could transfer to another customer without breaching the contract and without
     incurring significant costs that otherwise would not have been incurred in relation to that
     contract.

B8   A practical limitation on an entity's ability to direct an asset for another use exists if an
     entity would incur significant economic losses to direct the asset for another use. A
     significant economic loss could arise because the entity either would incur significant
     costs to rework the asset or would only be able to sell the asset at a significant loss. For
     example, an entity may be practically limited from redirecting assets that either have
     design specifications that are unique to a customer or are located in remote areas.

     Right to payment for performance completed to date (paragraph 35(c))

B9   In accordance with paragraph 37, an entity has a right to payment for performance
     completed to date if the entity would be entitled to an amount that at least compensates
     the entity for its performance completed to date in the event that the customer or another
     party terminates the contract for reasons other than the entity's failure to perform as
     promised. An amount that would compensate an entity for performance completed to date
     would be an amount that approximates the selling price of the goods or services
     transferred to date (for example, recovery of the costs incurred by an entity in satisfying
     the performance obligation plus a reasonable profit margin) rather than compensation for
     only the entity's potential loss of profit if the contract were to be terminated.
     Compensation for a reasonable profit margin need not equal the profit margin expected if
     the contract was fulfilled as promised, but an entity should be entitled to compensation
     for either of the following amounts:

     (a)    a proportion of the expected profit margin in the contract that reasonably reflects
            the extent of the entity's performance under the contract before termination by the
            customer (or another party); or

     (b)    a reasonable return on the entity's cost of capital for similar contracts (or the
            entity's typical operating margin for similar contracts) if the contract-specific
            margin is higher than the return the entity usually generates from similar
            contracts.
B10   An entity's right to payment for performance completed to date need not be a present
      unconditional right to payment. In many cases, an entity will have an unconditional right
      to payment only at an agreed-upon milestone or upon complete satisfaction of the
      performance obligation. In assessing whether it has a right to payment for performance
      completed to date, an entity shall consider whether it would have an enforceable right to
      demand or retain payment for performance completed to date if the contract were to be
      terminated before completion for reasons other than the entity's failure to perform as
      promised.

B11   In some contracts, a customer may have a right to terminate the contract only at specified
      times during the life of the contract or the customer might not have any right to terminate
      the contract. If a customer acts to terminate a contract without having the right to
      terminate the contract at that time (including when a customer fails to perform its
      obligations as promised), the contract (or other laws) might entitle the entity to continue
      to transfer to the customer the goods or services promised in the contract and require the
      customer to pay the consideration promised in exchange for those goods or services. In
      those circumstances, an entity has a right to payment for performance completed to date
      because the entity has a right to continue to perform its obligations in accordance with the
      contract and to require the customer to perform its obligations (which include paying the
      promised consideration).

B12   In assessing the existence and enforceability of a right to payment for performance
      completed to date, an entity shall consider the contractual terms as well as any legislation
      or legal precedent that could supplement or override those contractual terms. This would
      include an assessment of whether:

      (a)    legislation, administrative practice or legal precedent confers upon the entity a
             right to payment for performance to date even though that right is not specified in
             the contract with the customer;

      (b)    relevant legal precedent indicates that similar rights to payment for performance
             completed to date in similar contracts have no binding legal effect; or

      (c)    an entity's customary business practices of choosing not to enforce a right to
             payment has resulted in the right being rendered unenforceable in that legal
             environment. However, notwithstanding that an entity may choose to waive its
             right to payment in similar contracts, an entity would continue to have a right to
             payment to date if, in the contract with the customer, its right to payment for
             performance to date remains enforceable.

B13   The payment schedule specified in a contract does not necessarily indicate whether an
      entity has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date. Although
      the payment schedule in a contract specifies the timing and amount of consideration that
      is payable by a customer, the payment schedule might not necessarily provide evidence
      of the entity's right to payment for performance completed to date. This is because, for
      example, the contract could specify that the consideration received from the customer is
      refundable for reasons other than the entity failing to perform as promised in the contract.

      Methods for measuring progress towards complete satisfaction of a
      performance obligation
B14   Methods that can be used to measure an entity's progress towards complete satisfaction
      of a performance obligation satisfied over time in accordance with paragraphs 35­37
      include the following:

      (a)    output methods (see paragraphs B15­B17); and

      (b)    input methods (see paragraphs B18­B19).

      Output methods

B15   Output methods recognise revenue on the basis of direct measurements of the value to the
      customer of the goods or services transferred to date relative to the remaining goods or
      services promised under the contract. Output methods include methods such as surveys of
      performance completed to date, appraisals of results achieved, milestones reached, time
      elapsed and units produced or units delivered. When an entity evaluates whether to apply
      an output method to measure its progress, the entity shall consider whether the output
      selected would faithfully depict the entity's performance towards complete satisfaction of
      the performance obligation. An output method would not provide a faithful depiction of
      the entity's performance if the output selected would fail to measure some of the goods or
      services for which control has transferred to the customer. For example, output methods
      based on units produced or units delivered would not faithfully depict an entity's
      performance in satisfying a performance obligation if, at the end of the reporting period,
      the entity's performance has produced work in progress or finished goods controlled by
      the customer that are not included in the measurement of the output.

B16   As a practical expedient, if an entity has a right to consideration from a customer in an
      amount that corresponds directly with the value to the customer of the entity's
      performance completed to date (for example, a service contract in which an entity bills a
      fixed amount for each hour of service provided), the entity may recognise revenue in the
      amount to which the entity has a right to invoice.

B17   The disadvantages of output methods are that the outputs used to measure progress may
      not be directly observable and the information required to apply them may not be
      available to an entity without undue cost. Therefore, an input method may be necessary.

      Input methods

B18   Input methods recognise revenue on the basis of the entity's efforts or inputs to the
      satisfaction of a performance obligation (for example, resources consumed, labour hours
      expended, costs incurred, time elapsed or machine hours used) relative to the total
      expected inputs to the satisfaction of that performance obligation. If the entity's efforts or
      inputs are expended evenly throughout the performance period, it may be appropriate for
      the entity to recognise revenue on a straight-line basis.

B19   A shortcoming of input methods is that there may not be a direct relationship between an
      entity's inputs and the transfer of control of goods or services to a customer. Therefore,
      an entity shall exclude from an input method the effects of any inputs that, in accordance
      with the objective of measuring progress in paragraph 39, do not depict the entity's
      performance in transferring control of goods or services to the customer. For instance,
      when using a cost-based input method, an adjustment to the measure of progress may be
      required in the following circumstances:

      (a)    When a cost incurred does not contribute to an entity's progress in satisfying the
             performance obligation. For example, an entity would not recognise revenue on
             the basis of costs incurred that are attributable to significant inefficiencies in the
             entity's performance that were not reflected in the price of the contract (for
             example, the costs of unexpected amounts of wasted materials, labour or other
             resources that were incurred to satisfy the performance obligation).

      (b)    When a cost incurred is not proportionate to the entity's progress in satisfying the
             performance obligation. In those circumstances, the best depiction of the entity's
             performance may be to adjust the input method to recognise revenue only to the
             extent of that cost incurred. For example, a faithful depiction of an entity's
             performance might be to recognise revenue at an amount equal to the cost of a
             good used to satisfy a performance obligation if the entity expects at contract
             inception that all of the following conditions would be met:

             (i)     the good is not distinct;

             (ii)    the customer is expected to obtain control of the good significantly before
                     receiving services related to the good;

             (iii)   the cost of the transferred good is significant relative to the total expected
                     costs to completely satisfy the performance obligation; and

             (iv)    the entity procures the good from a third party and is not significantly
                     involved in designing and manufacturing the good (but the entity is acting
                     as a principal in accordance with paragraphs B34­B38).

      Sale with a right of return
B20   In some contracts, an entity transfers control of a product to a customer and also grants
      the customer the right to return the product for various reasons (such as dissatisfaction
      with the product) and receive any combination of the following:

      (a)    a full or partial refund of any consideration paid;
      (b)    a credit that can be applied against amounts owed, or that will be owed, to the
             entity; and

      (c)    another product in exchange.

B21   To account for the transfer of products with a right of return (and for some services that
      are provided subject to a refund), an entity shall recognise all of the following:

      (a)    revenue for the transferred products in the amount of consideration to which the
             entity expects to be entitled (therefore, revenue would not be recognised for the
             products expected to be returned);

      (b)    a refund liability; and

      (c)    an asset (and corresponding adjustment to cost of sales) for its right to recover
             products from customers on settling the refund liability.

B22   An entity's promise to stand ready to accept a returned product during the return period
      shall not be accounted for as a performance obligation in addition to the obligation to
      provide a refund.

B23   An entity shall apply the requirements in paragraphs 47­72 (including the requirements
      for constraining estimates of variable consideration in paragraphs 56­58) to determine
      the amount of consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled (ie excluding the
      products expected to be returned). For any amounts received (or receivable) for which an
      entity does not expect to be entitled, the entity shall not recognise revenue when it
      transfers products to customers but shall recognise those amounts received (or receivable)
      as a refund liability. Subsequently, at the end of each reporting period, the entity shall
      update its assessment of amounts for which it expects to be entitled in exchange for the
      transferred products and make a corresponding change to the transaction price and,
      therefore, in the amount of revenue recognised.

B24   An entity shall update the measurement of the refund liability at the end of each reporting
      period for changes in expectations about the amount of refunds. An entity shall recognise
      corresponding adjustments as revenue (or reductions of revenue).

B25   An asset recognised for an entity's right to recover products from a customer on settling a
      refund liability shall initially be measured by reference to the former carrying amount of
      the product (for example, inventory) less any expected costs to recover those products
      (including potential decreases in the value to the entity of returned products). At the end
      of each reporting period, an entity shall update the measurement of the asset arising from
      changes in expectations about products to be returned. An entity shall present the asset
      separately from the refund liability.
B26   Exchanges by customers of one product for another of the same type, quality, condition
      and price (for example, one colour or size for another) are not considered returns for the
      purposes of applying this Standard.

B27   Contracts in which a customer may return a defective product in exchange for a
      functioning product shall be evaluated in accordance with the guidance on warranties in
      paragraphs B28­B33.

      Warranties
B28   It is common for an entity to provide (in accordance with the contract, the law or the
      entity's customary business practices) a warranty in connection with the sale of a product
      (whether a good or service). The nature of a warranty can vary significantly across
      industries and contracts. Some warranties provide a customer with assurance that the
      related product will function as the parties intended because it complies with agreed-upon
      specifications. Other warranties provide the customer with a service in addition to the
      assurance that the product complies with agreed-upon specifications.

B29   If a customer has the option to purchase a warranty separately (for example, because the
      warranty is priced or negotiated separately), the warranty is a distinct service because the
      entity promises to provide the service to the customer in addition to the product that has
      the functionality described in the contract. In those circumstances, an entity shall account
      for the promised warranty as a performance obligation in accordance with paragraphs 22­
      30 and allocate a portion of the transaction price to that performance obligation in
      accordance with paragraphs 73­86.

B30   If a customer does not have the option to purchase a warranty separately, an entity shall
      account for the warranty in accordance with Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities
      and Contingent Assets, unless the promised warranty, or a part of the promised warranty,
      provides the customer with a service in addition to the assurance that the product
      complies with agreed-upon specifications.

B31   In assessing whether a warranty provides a customer with a service in addition to the
      assurance that the product complies with agreed-upon specifications, an entity shall
      consider factors such as:

      (a)    Whether the warranty is required by law--if the entity is required by law to
             provide a warranty, the existence of that law indicates that the promised warranty
             is not a performance obligation because such requirements typically exist to
             protect customers from the risk of purchasing defective products.

      (b)    The length of the warranty coverage period--the longer the coverage period, the
             more likely it is that the promised warranty is a performance obligation because it
             is more likely to provide a service in addition to the assurance that the product
             complies with agreed-upon specifications.
      (c)    The nature of the tasks that the entity promises to perform--if it is necessary for
             an entity to perform specified tasks to provide the assurance that a product
             complies with agreed-upon specifications (for example, a return shipping service
             for a defective product), then those tasks likely do not give rise to a performance
             obligation.

B32   If a warranty, or a part of a warranty, provides a customer with a service in addition to the
      assurance that the product complies with agreed-upon specifications, the promised
      service is a performance obligation. Therefore, an entity shall allocate the transaction
      price to the product and the service. If an entity promises both an assurance-type
      warranty and a service-type warranty but cannot reasonably account for them separately,
      the entity shall account for both of the warranties together as a single performance
      obligation.

B33   A law that requires an entity to pay compensation if its products cause harm or damage
      does not give rise to a performance obligation. For example, a manufacturer might sell
      products in a jurisdiction in which the law holds the manufacturer liable for any damages
      (for example, to personal property) that might be caused by a consumer using a product
      for its intended purpose. Similarly, an entity's promise to indemnify the customer for
      liabilities and damages arising from claims of patent, copyright, trademark or other
      infringement by the entity's products does not give rise to a performance obligation. The
      entity shall account for such obligations in accordance with Ind AS 37.

      Principal versus agent considerations
B34   When another party is involved in providing goods or services to a customer, the entity
      shall determine whether the nature of its promise is a performance obligation to provide
      the specified goods or services itself (ie the entity is a principal) or to arrange for the
      other party to provide those goods or services (ie the entity is an agent).

B35   An entity is a principal if the entity controls a promised good or service before the entity
      transfers the good or service to a customer. However, an entity is not necessarily acting
      as a principal if the entity obtains legal title of a product only momentarily before legal
      title is transferred to a customer. An entity that is a principal in a contract may satisfy a
      performance obligation by itself or it may engage another party (for example, a
      subcontractor) to satisfy some or all of a performance obligation on its behalf. When an
      entity that is a principal satisfies a performance obligation, the entity recognises revenue
      in the gross amount of consideration to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for
      those goods or services transferred.




B36   An entity is an agent if the entity's performance obligation is to arrange for the provision
      of goods or services by another party. When an entity that is an agent satisfies a
      performance obligation, the entity recognises revenue in the amount of any fee or
      commission to which it expects to be entitled in exchange for arranging for the other
      party to provide its goods or services. An entity's fee or commission might be the net
      amount of consideration that the entity retains after paying the other party the
      consideration received in exchange for the goods or services to be provided by that party.

B37   Indicators that an entity is an agent (and therefore does not control the good or service
      before it is provided to a customer) include the following:

      (a)    another party is primarily responsible for fulfilling the contract;

      (b)    the entity does not have inventory risk before or after the goods have been ordered
             by a customer, during shipping or on return;

      (c)    the entity does not have discretion in establishing prices for the other party's
             goods or services and, therefore, the benefit that the entity can receive from those
             goods or services is limited;

      (d)    the entity's consideration is in the form of a commission; and

      (e)    the entity is not exposed to credit risk for the amount receivable from a customer
             in exchange for the other party's goods or services.

B38   If another entity assumes the entity's performance obligations and contractual rights in
      the contract so that the entity is no longer obliged to satisfy the performance obligation to
      transfer the promised good or service to the customer (ie the entity is no longer acting as
      the principal), the entity shall not recognise revenue for that performance obligation.
      Instead, the entity shall evaluate whether to recognise revenue for satisfying a
      performance obligation to obtain a contract for the other party (ie whether the entity is
      acting as an agent).

      Customer options for additional goods or services
B39   Customer options to acquire additional goods or services for free or at a discount come in
      many forms, including sales incentives, customer award credits (or points), contract
      renewal options or other discounts on future goods or services.

B40   If, in a contract, an entity grants a customer the option to acquire additional goods or
      services, that option gives rise to a performance obligation in the contract only if the
      option provides a material right to the customer that it would not receive without entering
      into that contract (for example, a discount that is incremental to the range of discounts
      typically given for those goods or services to that class of customer in that geographical
      area or market). If the option provides a material right to the customer, the customer in
      effect pays the entity in advance for future goods or services and the entity recognises
      revenue when those future goods or services are transferred or when the option expires.

B41   If a customer has the option to acquire an additional good or service at a price that would
      reflect the stand-alone selling price for that good or service, that option does not provide
      the customer with a material right even if the option can be exercised only by entering
      into a previous contract. In those cases, the entity has made a marketing offer that it shall
      account for in accordance with this Standard only when the customer exercises the option
      to purchase the additional goods or services.

B42   Paragraph 74 requires an entity to allocate the transaction price to performance
      obligations on a relative stand-alone selling price basis. If the stand-alone selling price for
      a customer's option to acquire additional goods or services is not directly observable, an
      entity shall estimate it. That estimate shall reflect the discount that the customer would
      obtain when exercising the option, adjusted for both of the following:

      (a)    any discount that the customer could receive without exercising the option; and

      (b)    the likelihood that the option will be exercised.

B43   If a customer has a material right to acquire future goods or services and those goods or
      services are similar to the original goods or services in the contract and are provided in
      accordance with the terms of the original contract, then an entity may, as a practical
      alternative to estimating the stand-alone selling price of the option, allocate the
      transaction price to the optional goods or services by reference to the goods or services
      expected to be provided and the corresponding expected consideration. Typically, those
      types of options are for contract renewals.

      Customers' unexercised rights
B44   In accordance with paragraph 106, upon receipt of a prepayment from a customer, an
      entity shall recognise a contract liability in the amount of the prepayment for its
      performance obligation to transfer, or to stand ready to transfer, goods or services in the
      future. An entity shall derecognise that contract liability (and recognise revenue) when it
      transfers those goods or services and, therefore, satisfies its performance obligation.

B45   A customer's non-refundable prepayment to an entity gives the customer a right to
      receive a good or service in the future (and obliges the entity to stand ready to transfer a
      good or service). However, customers may not exercise all of their contractual rights.
      Those unexercised rights are often referred to as breakage.

B46   If an entity expects to be entitled to a breakage amount in a contract liability, the entity
      shall recognise the expected breakage amount as revenue in proportion to the pattern of
      rights exercised by the customer. If an entity does not expect to be entitled to a breakage
      amount, the entity shall recognise the expected breakage amount as revenue when the
      likelihood of the customer exercising its remaining rights becomes remote. To determine
      whether an entity expects to be entitled to a breakage amount, the entity shall consider the
      requirements in paragraphs 56­58 on constraining estimates of variable consideration.

B47   An entity shall recognise a liability (and not revenue) for any consideration received that
      is attributable to a customer's unexercised rights for which the entity is required to remit
      to another party, for example, a government entity in accordance with applicable
      unclaimed property laws.

      Non-refundable upfront fees (and some related costs)
B48   In some contracts, an entity charges a customer a non-refundable upfront fee at or near
      contract inception. Examples include joining fees in health club membership contracts,
      activation fees in telecommunication contracts, setup fees in some services contracts and
      initial fees in some supply contracts.

B49   To identify performance obligations in such contracts, an entity shall assess whether the
      fee relates to the transfer of a promised good or service. In many cases, even though a
      non-refundable upfront fee relates to an activity that the entity is required to undertake at
      or near contract inception to fulfil the contract, that activity does not result in the transfer
      of a promised good or service to the customer (see paragraph 25). Instead, the upfront fee
      is an advance payment for future goods or services and, therefore, would be recognised as
      revenue when those future goods or services are provided. The revenue recognition
      period would extend beyond the initial contractual period if the entity grants the customer
      the option to renew the contract and that option provides the customer with a material
      right as described in paragraph B40.

B50   If the non-refundable upfront fee relates to a good or service, the entity shall evaluate
      whether to account for the good or service as a separate performance obligation in
      accordance with paragraphs 22­30.

B51   An entity may charge a non-refundable fee in part as compensation for costs incurred in
      setting up a contract (or other administrative tasks as described in paragraph 25). If those
      setup activities do not satisfy a performance obligation, the entity shall disregard those
      activities (and related costs) when measuring progress in accordance with paragraph B19.
      That is because the costs of setup activities do not depict the transfer of services to the
      customer. The entity shall assess whether costs incurred in setting up a contract have
      resulted in an asset that shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 95.

      Licensing
B52   A licence establishes a customer's rights to the intellectual property of an entity. Licences
      of intellectual property may include, but are not limited to, any of the following:

      (a)    software and technology;

      (b)    motion pictures, music and other forms of media and entertainment;

      (c)    franchises; and

      (d)    patents, trademarks and copyrights.
B53   In addition to a promise to grant a licence to a customer, an entity may also promise to
      transfer other goods or services to the customer. Those promises may be explicitly stated
      in the contract or implied by an entity's customary business practices, published policies
      or specific statements (see paragraph 24). As with other types of contracts, when a
      contract with a customer includes a promise to grant a licence in addition to other
      promised goods or services, an entity applies paragraphs 22­30 to identify each of the
      performance obligations in the contract.

B54   If the promise to grant a licence is not distinct from other promised goods or services in
      the contract in accordance with paragraphs 26­30, an entity shall account for the promise
      to grant a licence and those other promised goods or services together as a single
      performance obligation. Examples of licences that are not distinct from other goods or
      services promised in the contract include the following:

      (a)    a licence that forms a component of a tangible good and that is integral to the
             functionality of the good; and

      (b)    a licence that the customer can benefit from only in conjunction with a related
             service (such as an online service provided by the entity that enables, by granting
             a licence, the customer to access content).

B55   If the licence is not distinct, an entity shall apply paragraphs 31­38 to determine whether
      the performance obligation (which includes the promised licence) is a performance
      obligation that is satisfied over time or satisfied at a point in time.

B56   If the promise to grant the licence is distinct from the other promised goods or services in
      the contract and, therefore, the promise to grant the licence is a separate performance
      obligation, an entity shall determine whether the licence transfers to a customer either at a
      point in time or over time. In making this determination, an entity shall consider whether
      the nature of the entity's promise in granting the licence to a customer is to provide the
      customer with either:

      (a)    a right to access the entity's intellectual property as it exists throughout the
             licence period; or

      (b)    a right to use the entity's intellectual property as it exists at the point in time at
             which the licence is granted.

      Determining the nature of the entity's promise

B57   To determine whether an entity's promise to grant a licence provides a customer with
      either a right to access an entity's intellectual property or a right to use an entity's
      intellectual property, an entity shall consider whether a customer can direct the use of,
      and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, a licence at the point in time
      at which the licence is granted. A customer cannot direct the use of, and obtain
      substantially all of the remaining benefits from, a licence at the point in time at which the
      licence is granted if the intellectual property to which the customer has rights changes
      throughout the licence period. The intellectual property will change (and thus affect the
      entity's assessment of when the customer controls the licence) when the entity continues
      to be involved with its intellectual property and the entity undertakes activities that
      significantly affect the intellectual property to which the customer has rights. In these
      cases, the licence provides the customer with a right to access the entity's intellectual
      property (see paragraph B58). In contrast, a customer can direct the use of, and obtain
      substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the licence at the point in time at which
      the licence is granted if the intellectual property to which the customer has rights will not
      change (see paragraph B61). In those cases, any activities undertaken by the entity
      merely change its own asset (ie the underlying intellectual property), which may affect
      the entity's ability to provide future licences; however, those activities would not affect
      the determination of what the licence provides or what the customer controls.

B58   The nature of an entity's promise in granting a licence is a promise to provide a right to
      access the entity's intellectual property if all of the following criteria are met:

      (a)    the contract requires, or the customer reasonably expects, that the entity will
             undertake activities that significantly affect the intellectual property to which the
             customer has rights (see paragraph B59);

      (b)    the rights granted by the licence directly expose the customer to any positive or
             negative effects of the entity's activities identified in paragraph B58(a); and

      (c)    those activities do not result in the transfer of a good or a service to the customer
             as those activities occur (see paragraph 25).

B59   Factors that may indicate that a customer could reasonably expect that an entity will
      undertake activities that significantly affect the intellectual property include the entity's
      customary business practices, published policies or specific statements. Although not
      determinative, the existence of a shared economic interest (for example, a sales-based
      royalty) between the entity and the customer related to the intellectual property to which
      the customer has rights may also indicate that the customer could reasonably expect that
      the entity will undertake such activities.

B60   If the criteria in paragraph B58 are met, an entity shall account for the promise to grant a
      licence as a performance obligation satisfied over time because the customer will
      simultaneously receive and consume the benefit from the entity's performance of
      providing access to its intellectual property as the performance occurs (see paragraph
      35(a)). An entity shall apply paragraphs 39­45 to select an appropriate method to
      measure its progress towards complete satisfaction of that performance obligation to
      provide access.

B61   If the criteria in paragraph B58 are not met, the nature of an entity's promise is to provide
      a right to use the entity's intellectual property as that intellectual property exists (in terms
      of form and functionality) at the point in time at which the licence is granted to the
      customer. This means that the customer can direct the use of, and obtain substantially all
      of the remaining benefits from, the licence at the point in time at which the licence
      transfers. An entity shall account for the promise to provide a right to use the entity's
      intellectual property as a performance obligation satisfied at a point in time. An entity
      shall apply paragraph 38 to determine the point in time at which the licence transfers to
      the customer. However, revenue cannot be recognised for a licence that provides a right
      to use the entity's intellectual property before the beginning of the period during which
      the customer is able to use and benefit from the licence. For example, if a software
      licence period begins before an entity provides (or otherwise makes available) to the
      customer a code that enables the customer to immediately use the software, the entity
      would not recognise revenue before that code has been provided (or otherwise made
      available).

B62   An entity shall disregard the following factors when determining whether a licence
      provides a right to access the entity's intellectual property or a right to use the entity's
      intellectual property:

      (a)    Restrictions of time, geographical region or use--those restrictions define the
             attributes of the promised licence, rather than define whether the entity satisfies
             its performance obligation at a point in time or over time.

      (b)    Guarantees provided by the entity that it has a valid patent to intellectual property
             and that it will defend that patent from unauthorised use--a promise to defend a
             patent right is not a performance obligation because the act of defending a patent
             protects the value of the entity's intellectual property assets and provides
             assurance to the customer that the licence transferred meets the specifications of
             the licence promised in the contract.

      Sales-based or usage-based royalties

B63   Notwithstanding the requirements in paragraphs 56­59, an entity shall recognise revenue
      for a sales-based or usage-based royalty promised in exchange for a licence of intellectual
      property only when (or as) the later of the following events occurs:

      (a)    the subsequent sale or usage occurs; and

      (b)    the performance obligation to which some or all of the sales-based or usage-based
             royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

      Repurchase agreements
B64   A repurchase agreement is a contract in which an entity sells an asset and also promises
      or has the option (either in the same contract or in another contract) to repurchase the
      asset. The repurchased asset may be the asset that was originally sold to the customer, an
      asset that is substantially the same as that asset, or another asset of which the asset that
      was originally sold is a component.
B65   Repurchase agreements generally come in three forms:

      (a)    an entity's obligation to repurchase the asset (a forward);

      (b)    an entity's right to repurchase the asset (a call option); and

      (c)    an entity's obligation to repurchase the asset at the customer's request (a put
             option).

      A forward or a call option

B66   If an entity has an obligation or a right to repurchase the asset (a forward or a call option),
      a customer does not obtain control of the asset because the customer is limited in its
      ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the
      asset even though the customer may have physical possession of the asset. Consequently,
      the entity shall account for the contract as either of the following:

      (a)    a lease in accordance with Ind AS 17, Leases, if the entity can or must repurchase
             the asset for an amount that is less than the original selling price of the asset; or

      (b)    a financing arrangement in accordance with paragraph B68 if the entity can or
             must repurchase the asset for an amount that is equal to or more than the original
             selling price of the asset.

B67   When comparing the repurchase price with the selling price, an entity shall consider the
      time value of money.

B68   If the repurchase agreement is a financing arrangement, the entity shall continue to
      recognise the asset and also recognise a financial liability for any consideration received
      from the customer. The entity shall recognise the difference between the amount of
      consideration received from the customer and the amount of consideration to be paid to
      the customer as interest and, if applicable, as processing or holding costs (for example,
      insurance).

B69   If the option lapses unexercised, an entity shall derecognise the liability and recognise
      revenue.

      A put option

B70   If an entity has an obligation to repurchase the asset at the customer's request (a put
      option) at a price that is lower than the original selling price of the asset, the entity shall
      consider at contract inception whether the customer has a significant economic incentive
      to exercise that right. The customer's exercising of that right results in the customer
      effectively paying the entity consideration for the right to use a specified asset for a
      period of time. Therefore, if the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise
      that right, the entity shall account for the agreement as a lease in accordance with Ind AS
      17.

B71   To determine whether a customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise its
      right, an entity shall consider various factors, including the relationship of the repurchase
      price to the expected market value of the asset at the date of the repurchase and the
      amount of time until the right expires. For example, if the repurchase price is expected to
      significantly exceed the market value of the asset, this may indicate that the customer has
      a significant economic incentive to exercise the put option.

B72   If the customer does not have a significant economic incentive to exercise its right at a
      price that is lower than the original selling price of the asset, the entity shall account for
      the agreement as if it were the sale of a product with a right of return as described in
      paragraphs B20­B27.

B73   If the repurchase price of the asset is equal to or greater than the original selling price and
      is more than the expected market value of the asset, the contract is in effect a financing
      arrangement and, therefore, shall be accounted for as described in paragraph B68.

B74   If the repurchase price of the asset is equal to or greater than the original selling price and
      is less than or equal to the expected market value of the asset, and the customer does not
      have a significant economic incentive to exercise its right, then the entity shall account
      for the agreement as if it were the sale of a product with a right of return as described in
      paragraphs B20­B27.

B75   When comparing the repurchase price with the selling price, an entity shall consider the
      time value of money.

B76   If the option lapses unexercised, an entity shall derecognise the liability and recognise
      revenue.

      Consignment arrangements
B77   When an entity delivers a product to another party (such as a dealer or a distributor) for
      sale to end customers, the entity shall evaluate whether that other party has obtained
      control of the product at that point in time. A product that has been delivered to another
      party may be held in a consignment arrangement if that other party has not obtained
      control of the product. Accordingly, an entity shall not recognise revenue upon delivery
      of a product to another party if the delivered product is held on consignment.

B78   Indicators that an arrangement is a consignment arrangement include, but are not limited
      to, the following:

      (a)    the product is controlled by the entity until a specified event occurs, such as the
             sale of the product to a customer of the dealer or until a specified period expires;
      (b)    the entity is able to require the return of the product or transfer the product to a
             third party (such as another dealer); and
      (c)    the dealer does not have an unconditional obligation to pay for the product
             (although it might be required to pay a deposit).

      Bill-and-hold arrangements
B79   A bill-and-hold arrangement is a contract under which an entity bills a customer for a
      product but the entity retains physical possession of the product until it is transferred to
      the customer at a point in time in the future. For example, a customer may request an
      entity to enter into such a contract because of the customer's lack of available space for
      the product or because of delays in the customer's production schedules.

B80   An entity shall determine when it has satisfied its performance obligation to transfer a
      product by evaluating when a customer obtains control of that product (see paragraph
      38). For some contracts, control is transferred either when the product is delivered to the
      customer's site or when the product is shipped, depending on the terms of the contract
      (including delivery and shipping terms). However, for some contracts, a customer may
      obtain control of a product even though that product remains in an entity's physical
      possession. In that case, the customer has the ability to direct the use of, and obtain
      substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the product even though it has decided
      not to exercise its right to take physical possession of that product. Consequently, the
      entity does not control the product. Instead, the entity provides custodial services to the
      customer over the customer's asset.

B81   In addition to applying the requirements in paragraph 38, for a customer to have obtained
      control of a product in a bill-and-hold arrangement, all of the following criteria must be
      met:

      (a)    the reason for the bill-and-hold arrangement must be substantive (for example, the
             customer has requested the arrangement);

      (b)    the product must be identified separately as belonging to the customer;

      (c)    the product currently must be ready for physical transfer to the customer; and

      (d)    the entity cannot have the ability to use the product or to direct it to another
             customer.

B82   If an entity recognises revenue for the sale of a product on a bill-and-hold basis, the entity
      shall consider whether it has remaining performance obligations (for example, for
      custodial services) in accordance with paragraphs 22­30 to which the entity shall allocate
      a portion of the transaction price in accordance with paragraphs 73­86.
      Customer acceptance
B83   In accordance with paragraph 38(e), a customer's acceptance of an asset may indicate
      that the customer has obtained control of the asset. Customer acceptance clauses allow a
      customer to cancel a contract or require an entity to take remedial action if a good or
      service does not meet agreed-upon specifications. An entity shall consider such clauses
      when evaluating when a customer obtains control of a good or service.

B84   If an entity can objectively determine that control of a good or service has been
      transferred to the customer in accordance with the agreed-upon specifications in the
      contract, then customer acceptance is a formality that would not affect the entity's
      determination of when the customer has obtained control of the good or service. For
      example, if the customer acceptance clause is based on meeting specified size and weight
      characteristics, an entity would be able to determine whether those criteria have been met
      before receiving confirmation of the customer's acceptance. The entity's experience with
      contracts for similar goods or services may provide evidence that a good or service
      provided to the customer is in accordance with the agreed-upon specifications in the
      contract. If revenue is recognised before customer acceptance, the entity still must
      consider whether there are any remaining performance obligations (for example,
      installation of equipment) and evaluate whether to account for them separately.

B85   However, if an entity cannot objectively determine that the good or service provided to
      the customer is in accordance with the agreed-upon specifications in the contract, then the
      entity would not be able to conclude that the customer has obtained control until the
      entity receives the customer's acceptance. That is because in that circumstance the entity
      cannot determine that the customer has the ability to direct the use of, and obtain
      substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the good or service.

B86   If an entity delivers products to a customer for trial or evaluation purposes and the
      customer is not committed to pay any consideration until the trial period lapses, control
      of the product is not transferred to the customer until either the customer accepts the
      product or the trial period lapses.

      Disclosure of disaggregated revenue
B87   Paragraph 114 requires an entity to disaggregate revenue from contracts with customers
      into categories that depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and
      cash flows are affected by economic factors. Consequently, the extent to which an
      entity's revenue is disaggregated for the purposes of this disclosure depends on the facts
      and circumstances that pertain to the entity's contracts with customers. Some entities may
      need to use more than one type of category to meet the objective in paragraph 114 for
      disaggregating revenue. Other entities may meet the objective by using only one type of
      category to disaggregate revenue.
B88   When selecting the type of category (or categories) to use to disaggregate revenue, an
      entity shall consider how information about the entity's revenue has been presented for
      other purposes, including all of the following:

      (a)    disclosures presented outside the financial statements (for example, in earnings
             releases, annual reports or investor presentations);
      (b)    information regularly reviewed by the chief operating decision maker for
             evaluating the financial performance of operating segments; and

      (c)    other information that is similar to the types of information identified in paragraph
             B88(a) and (b) and that is used by the entity or users of the entity's financial
             statements to evaluate the entity's financial performance or make resource
             allocation decisions.

B89   Examples of categories that might be appropriate include, but are not limited to, all of the
      following:

      (a)    type of good or service (for example, major product lines);

      (b)    geographical region (for example, country or region);

      (c)    market or type of customer (for example, government and non-government
             customers);

      (d)    type of contract (for example, fixed-price and time-and-materials contracts);

      (e)    contract duration (for example, short-term and long-term contracts);

      (f)    timing of transfer of goods or services (for example, revenue from goods or
             services transferred to customers at a point in time and revenue from goods or
             services transferred over time); and

      (g)    sales channels (for example, goods sold directly to consumers and goods sold
             through intermediaries).
Appendix E
Amendments to other Standards

This appendix describes the amendments to other Standards that are a consequence of the
issuance of Ind AS 115. Amended paragraphs are shown with deleted text struck through and
new text underlined.

This table shows how the following references have been amended in other Standards.

 Existing            contained in        in                             is amended to
 reference to                                                           reference to

                                         Paragraphs 4(a) and (c),
                     Ind AS 104
                                         B18(h)
 Ind AS 18,
 Revenue
                     Ind AS 16           Paragraph 68A
 or Ind AS 18
                                                                        Ind AS 115, Revenue from
                     Ind AS 40           Paragraph 3(b)                 Contracts with Customers
                                                                        or Ind AS 115
 Ind AS 11,
 Construction        Appendix A to
                                         Paragraph 6
 Contracts or        Ind AS 38
 Ind AS 11



Ind AS 103 Business Combinations

Paragraph 56 is amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is underlined.

       Contingent liabilities

56     After initial recognition and until the liability is settled, cancelled or expires, the acquirer
       shall measure a contingent liability recognised in a business combination at the higher of:

       (a)      the amount that would be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 37; and

       (b)      the amount initially recognised less, if appropriate, the cumulative amortisation
                amount of income recognised in accordance with Ind AS 18 Revenue the
                principles of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

       This requirement does not apply to contracts accounted for in accordance with Ind AS
       109.

       ...
Ind AS 104 Insurance Contracts

In Appendix B, paragraphs B7 and B21 are amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text
is underlined.

       Payments in kind

       ...

B7     Applying this Standard to the contracts described in paragraph B6 is likely to be no more
       burdensome than applying the Ind ASs that would be applicable if such contracts were
       outside the scope of this Ind AS:

       (a)    ...

       (b)    If Ind AS 18 Revenue Ind AS 115 applied, the service provider would recognise
              revenue by reference to the stage of completion when (or as) it transfers services
              to the customer (and subject to other specified criteria). That approach is also
              acceptable under this Ind AS, which permits the service provider (i) to continue
              its existing accounting policies for these contracts unless they involve practices
              prohibited by paragraph 14 and (ii) to improve its accounting policies if so
              permitted by paragraphs 22­30.

       (c)    ...

       Examples of insurance contracts

       ...

B21    If the contracts described in paragraph B19 do not create financial assets or financial
       liabilities, Ind AS 18 Ind AS 115 applies. Under Ind AS 18 Ind AS 115, revenue
       associated with a transaction involving the rendering of services is recognised by
       reference to the stage of completion of the transaction if the outcome of the transaction
       can be estimated reliably when (or as) an entity satisfies a performance obligation by
       transferring a promised good or service to a customer in an amount that reflects the
       consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled.


Ind AS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements

Paragraph 34 is amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is underlined.

       Offsetting

       ...
34      Ind AS 18 Revenue defines revenue and Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with
        Customers, requires an entity to measure it revenue from contracts with customers at the
        fair value of the consideration received or receivable, taking into account the amount of
        amount of consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for
        transferring promised goods or services. For example, the amount of revenue recognised
        reflects any trade discounts and volume rebates the entity allows. An entity undertakes, in
        the course of its ordinary activities, other transactions that do not generate revenue but
        are incidental to the main revenue-generating activities. An entity presents the results of
        such transactions, when this presentation reflects the substance of the transaction or other
        event, by netting any income with related expenses arising on the same transaction. For
        example:

        (a)    an entity presents gains and losses on the disposal of non-current assets, including
               investments and operating assets, by deducting from the proceeds amount of
               consideration on disposal the carrying amount of the asset and related selling
               expenses; and

        (b)    ...


Ind AS 2 Inventories

Paragraphs 2, 8, 29 and 37 are amended. Paragraph 19 is deleted. Deleted text is struck through
and new text is underlined.

Scope

2       This Standard applies to all inventories, except:

        (a)    work in progress arising under construction contracts, including directly
               related service contracts (see Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts); [deleted]

        (b)    ...

Definitions

        ...

8       Inventories encompass goods purchased and held for resale including, for example,
        merchandise purchased by a retailer and held for resale, or land and other property held
        for resale. Inventories also encompass finished goods produced, or work in progress
        being produced, by the entity and include materials and supplies awaiting use in the
        production process. In the case of a service provider, inventories include the costs of the
        service, as described in paragraph 19, for which the entity has not yet recognised the
        related revenue (see Ind AS 18 Revenue). Costs incurred to fulfil a contract with a
        customer that do not give rise to inventories (or assets within the scope of another
       Standard) are accounted for in accordance with Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with
       Customers.

       Net realisable value

       ...

29     Inventories are usually written down to net realisable value item by item. In some
       circumstances, however, it may be appropriate to group similar or related items. This may
       be the case with items of inventory relating to the same product line that have similar
       purposes or end uses, are produced and marketed in the same geographical area, and
       cannot be practicably evaluated separately from other items in that product line. It is not
       appropriate to write inventories down on the basis of a classification of inventory, for
       example, finished goods, or all the inventories in a particular operating segment. Service
       providers generally accumulate costs in respect of each service for which a separate
       selling price is charged. Therefore, each such service is treated as a separate item.

       ...

Disclosure

       ...

37     Information about the carrying amounts held in different classifications of inventories
       and the extent of the changes in these assets is useful to financial statement users.
       Common classifications of inventories are merchandise, production supplies, materials,
       work in progress and finished goods. The inventories of a service provider may be
       described as work in progress.

       ...


Ind AS 12 Income Taxes

Paragraph 59 is amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is underlined.

       Items recognised in profit or loss

       ...

59     Most deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets arise where income or expense is
       included in accounting profit in one period, but is included in taxable profit (tax loss) in a
       different period. The resulting deferred tax is recognised in profit or loss. Examples are
       when:
       (a)      interest, royalty or dividend revenue is received in arrears and is included in
                accounting profit on a time apportionment basis in accordance with Ind AS 18
                Revenue Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or Ind AS 109,
                Financial Instruments, as relevant, but is included in taxable profit (tax loss) on a
                cash basis; and

       (b)      ...


Ind AS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment

Paragraphs 69 and 72 are amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is underlined.

Derecognition

       ...

69     The disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment may occur in a variety of ways
       (eg by sale, by entering into a finance lease or by donation). In determining tThe date of
       disposal of an item, an entity applies the criteria in Ind AS 18 for recognising revenue
       from the sale of goods of property, plant and equipment is the date the recipient obtains
       control of that item in accordance with the requirements for determining when a
       performance obligation is satisfied in Ind AS 115. Ind AS 17 applies to disposal by a sale
       and leaseback.

       ...

72     The amount of consideration receivable on disposal to be included in the gain or loss
       arising from the derecognition of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised
       initially at its fair value. If payment for the item is deferred, the consideration received is
       recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the nominal
       amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as interest
       revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18 reflecting the effective yield on the receivable
       determined in accordance with the requirements for determining the transaction price in
       paragraphs 47­72 of Ind AS 115. Subsequent changes to the estimated amount of the
       consideration included in the gain or loss shall be accounted for in accordance with the
       requirements for changes in the transaction price in Ind AS 115.

       ...

Ind AS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation

In the Application Guidance, paragraph AG21 is amended. Deleted text is struck through and
new text is underlined.
       Contracts to buy or sell non-financial items (paragraphs 8­10)

       ...

AG21 Except as required by Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, Aa contract
     that involves the receipt or delivery of physical assets does not give rise to a financial
     asset of one party and a financial liability of the other party unless any corresponding
     payment is deferred past the date on which the physical assets are transferred. Such is the
     case with the purchase or sale of goods on trade credit.

Ind AS 34 Interim Financial Reporting


Paragraphs 15B and 16A are amended. New text is underlined.

       Significant events and transactions

       ...

15B    The following is a list of events and transactions for which disclosures would be required
       if they are significant: the list is not exhaustive.

       (a)    ...

       (b)    recognition of a loss from the impairment of financial assets, property, plant and
              equipment, intangible assets, assets arising from contracts with customers, or
              other assets, and the reversal of such an impairment loss;

       (c)    ...

       Other disclosures

16A    In addition to disclosing significant events and transactions in accordance with
       paragraphs 15­15C, an entity shall include the following information, in the notes to
       its interim financial statements, if not disclosed elsewhere in the interim financial
       report. The information shall normally be reported on a financial year-to-date basis.

       (a)    ...
       (l)    the disaggregation of revenue from contracts with customers required by
              paragraphs 114­115 of Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.

       ...
Ind AS 36 Impairment of Assets

Paragraph 2 is amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is underlined.

Scope

2       This Standard shall be applied in accounting for the impairment of all assets, other
        than:

        (a)    ...

        (b)    assets arising from construction contracts (see Ind AS 11 Construction
               Contracts) contract assets and assets arising from costs to obtain or fulfil a
               contract that are recognised in accordance with Ind AS 115, Revenue from
               Contracts with Customers;

        (c)    ...


Ind AS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

Paragraph 5 is amended and paragraph 6 is deleted. Deleted text is struck through and new text is
underlined.

Scope

        ...

5       When another Standard deals with a specific type of provision, contingent liability or
        contingent asset, an entity applies that Standard instead of this Standard. For example,
        some types of provisions are addressed in Standards on:

        (a)    construction contracts (see Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts); [deleted]

        (b)    ...

        (e)    insurance contracts (see Ind AS 104, Insurance Contracts). However, this
               Standard applies to provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets of an
               insurer, other than those arising from its contractual obligations and rights under
               insurance contracts within the scope of Ind AS 104; and

        (f)    contingent consideration of an acquirer in a business combination (see Ind AS
               103, Business Combinations).; and
        (g)    revenue from contracts with customers (see Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts
               with Customers). However, as Ind AS 115 contains no specific requirements to
               address contracts with customers that are, or have become, onerous, this Standard
               applies to such cases.

        ...

Ind AS 38 Intangible Assets

Paragraphs 3, 114 and 116 are amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is
underlined.

Scope

        ...

3       If another Standard prescribes the accounting for a specific type of intangible asset, an
        entity applies that Standard instead of this Standard. For example, this Standard does not
        apply to:

        (a)    intangible assets held by an entity for sale in the ordinary course of business (see
               Ind AS 2, Inventories and Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts).

        (b)    ...

        (i)    assets arising from contracts with customers that are recognised in accordance
               with Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
        ...

Retirements and disposals

        ...

114     The disposal of an intangible asset may occur in a variety of ways (eg by sale, by entering
        into a finance lease, or by donation). In determining tThe date of disposal of such an
        asset, an entity applies the criteria in Ind AS 18, Revenue, for recognising revenue from
        the sale of goods an intangible asset is the date that the recipient obtains control of that
        asset in accordance with the requirements for determining when a performance obligation
        is satisfied in Ind AS 115, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Ind AS 17 applies to
        disposal by a sale and leaseback.

        ...

116     The amount of consideration receivable on disposal to be included in the gain or loss
        arising from the derecognition of an intangible asset is recognised initially at its fair
       value. If payment for the intangible asset is deferred, the consideration received is
       recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the nominal
       amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as interest
       revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18 reflecting the effective yield on the receivable
       determined in accordance with the requirements for determining the transaction price in
       paragraphs 47­72 of Ind AS 115. Subsequent changes to the estimated amount of the
       consideration included in the gain or loss shall be accounted for in accordance with the
       requirements for changes in the transaction price in Ind AS 115.

       ...

Ind AS 40 Investment Property

Paragraphs 9, 67 and 70 are amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is underlined.

Classification of property as investment property or owner-occupied property

...

9      The following are examples of items that are not investment property and are therefore
       outside the scope of this Standard:

       (a)    ...

       (b)    property being constructed or developed on behalf of third parties (see Ind AS 11
              Construction Contracts). [deleted]

       (c)    ...

Disposals

       ...

67     The disposal of an investment property may be achieved by sale or by entering into a
       finance lease. In determining tThe date of disposal for investment property, an entity
       applies the criteria in Ind AS 18 for recognising revenue from the sale of goods and
       considers the related guidance in the illustrative examples accompanying Ind AS 18 is the
       date the recipient obtains control of the investment property in accordance with the
       requirements for determining when a performance obligation is satisfied in Ind AS 115.
       Ind AS 17 applies to a disposal effected by entering into a finance lease and to a sale and
       leaseback.

       ...

70     The amount of consideration receivable on disposal to be included in the gain or loss
       arising from the derecognition of an investment property is recognised initially at fair
      value. In particular, if payment for an investment property is deferred, the consideration
      received is recognised initially at the cash price equivalent. The difference between the
      nominal amount of the consideration and the cash price equivalent is recognised as
      interest revenue in accordance with Ind AS 18 using the effective interest method
      determined in accordance with the requirements for determining the transaction price in
      paragraphs 47­72 of Ind AS 115. Subsequent changes to the estimated amount of the
      consideration included in the gain or loss shall be accounted for in accordance with the
      requirements for changes in the transaction price in Ind AS 115.

      ...


Appendix C to Ind AS 115, Service Concession Arrangements

Paragraphs 13­15, 18­20 and 27 are amended. Deleted text is struck through and new text is
underlined.

      Recognition and measurement of arrangement consideration

      ...

13    The operator shall recognise and measure revenue in accordance with Ind ASs 11 and 18
      Ind AS 115 for the services it performs. If the operator performs more than one service
      (ie construction or upgrade services and operation services) under a single contract or
      arrangement, consideration received or receivable shall be allocated by reference to the
      relative fair values of the services delivered, when the amounts are separately
      identifiable. The nature of the consideration determines its subsequent accounting
      treatment. The subsequent accounting for consideration received as a financial asset and
      as an intangible asset is detailed in paragraphs 23­26 below.

      Construction or upgrade services

14    The operator shall account for revenue and costs relating to construction or upgrade
      services in accordance with Ind AS 11 Ind AS 115.

      Consideration given by the grantor to the operator

15    If the operator provides construction or upgrade services the consideration received or
      receivable by the operator shall be recognised in accordance with Ind AS 115 at its fair
      value. The consideration may be rights to:
      (a) ...
      ...

18    If the operator is paid for the construction services partly by a financial asset and partly
      by an intangible asset it is necessary to account separately for each component of the
      operator's consideration. The consideration received or receivable for both components
      shall be recognised initially in accordance with Ind AS 115 at the fair value of the
      consideration received or receivable.

19    The nature of the consideration given by the grantor to the operator shall be determined
      by reference to the contract terms and, when it exists, relevant contract law. The nature of
      the consideration determines the subsequent accounting as described in paragraphs 23­
      26. However, both types of consideration are classified as a contract asset during the
      construction or upgrade period in accordance with Ind AS 115.

      Operation services

20    The operator shall account for revenue and costs relating to operation services in
      accordance with Ind AS 18 Ind AS 115.

      ...

      Items provided to the operator by the grantor

27    In accordance with paragraph 11 of this Appendix, infrastructure items to which the
      operator is given access by the grantor for the purposes of the service arrangement are not
      recognised as property, plant and equipment of the operator. The grantor may also
      provide other items to the operator that the operator can keep or deal with as it wishes. If
      such assets form part of the consideration payable by the grantor for the services, they are
      not government grants as defined in Ind AS 20. They are recognised as assets of the
      operator, measured at fair value on initial recognition. The operator shall recognise a
      liability in respect of unfulfilled obligations it has assumed in exchange for the assets.
      Instead, they are accounted for as part of the transaction price as defined in Ind AS 115.

      ...


Appendix B to Ind AS 17, Evaluating the Substance of Transactions Involving
the Legal Form of a Lease

Paragraph 8 is amended. New text is underlined.

Accounting Principles

      ...

8     The criteria requirements in paragraph 20 of Ind AS 18 Ind AS 115, Revenue from
      Contracts with Customers, shall be applied to the facts and circumstances of each
      arrangement in determining when to recognise a fee as income that an Entity might
      receive. Factors such as whether there is continuing involvement in the form of
      significant future performance obligations necessary to earn the fee, whether there are
      retained risks, the terms of any guarantee arrangements, and the risk of repayment of the
fee, shall be considered. Indicators that individually demonstrate that recognition of the
entire fee as income when received, if received at the beginning of the arrangement, is
inappropriate include:

(a) ...
Appendix 1
Note: This appendix is not a part of the Indian Accounting Standard. The purpose of this
appendix is only to bring out the major differences, if any, between Indian Accounting Standard
(Ind AS) 115 and the corresponding International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 15,
Revenue from Contracts with Customers, issued by the International Accounting Standards
Board.

Comparison with IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Different terminology is used in Ind AS 115 eg the term `balance sheet' is used instead of
`statement of financial position' and `statement of profit and loss' is used instead of `statement of
comprehensive income'.

 
 
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